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CIV_VIOLENCE (CIV_VIOLENCE)
Violence against civilians annual time-series
Group: Social

CIV_VIOLENCE (CIV_VIOLENCE_1997 to CIV_VIOLENCE_2018) variables report the total number of days with incidents of violence against civilians in a given location for the specified year. CIV_VIOLENCE has meaningful values ranging from a minimum value of 0 to a maximum value of 365.

Codes

0 = No days of violence against civilians in that location in the specified year
-998 = Missing

Description

CIV_VIOLENCE consists of a set of 22 separate variables, each covering one year from 1997 to 2018. The variables report the number of days, within the specified year, in which violence against civilians occurred within a 10-kilometer circular buffer around each DHS cluster location. By adding CIV_VIOLENCE to your data cart, you are in effect adding 22 separate variables (CIV_VIOLENCE_1997 to CIV_VIOLENCE_2018), one variable for each year. The 2018 data in IPUMS-DHS end on September 15, 2018.

Data for CIV_VIOLENCE are obtained from the Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project ACLED, downloaded on September 15, 2018. The Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project (ACLED) defines violence against civilians as deliberate acts perpetrated by an organized political group (such as rebel, militia, or government forces) against unarmed non-combatants who are unable to defend themselves or engage in violence. Such conflicts harm or kill civilians, through events resulting in significant harm (e.g., bombing, shooting, torture, rape, mutilation) or accosting victims (kidnapping and disappearances); however, no fatalities are required for inclusion of the event. Events in which only property damage occurs or people are relocated without physical harm do not count as incidents of violence against civilians.

ACLED data provide differing levels of "geo-precision" or locational accuracy. IPUMS-DHS includes all levels of locational accuracy in its variable CIV_VIOLENCE. Please refer to ACLED for additional details on their procedures, methods of data collection, and data revision.

CIV_VIOLENCE, like the other IPUMS-DHS contextual variables, is calculated and based on sources external to the DHS. For more information on IPUMS-DHS contextual variables and how they are constructed, refer to the documentation on these variables.

Comparability

CIV_VIOLENCE data are available for the following countries and years:

  • Africa: January 1997 to the present
  • Cambodia, Nepal and Pakistan: January 2010 to the present
  • Bangladesh: January 2013 to the present
  • India, Indonesia, Jordan, and the Philippines: January 2016 to the present

"Present" in this context means September 2018.

Note that data on CIV_VIOLENCE may be missing for some years for some samples. For example, ACLED data are available for Bangladesh beginning in January 2013. Researchers selecting CIV_VIOLENCE data for the Bangladesh 2014 sample will receive the full set of 22 yearly variables, but CIV_VIOLENCE_1997 to CIV_VIOLENCE_2012 will include missing values only.

According to ACLED communications staff, the organization is constantly revising and supplementing the dataset to correct errors (incorrect interaction codes or locations) or to incorporate new or more complete information (new/updated sources, local partner data). Researchers should be aware that ACLED data for a given country downloaded from the original source may differ to some extent from the ACLED data incorporated in IPUMS-DHS, which were downloaded on September 15, 2018.

Comparability - Standard DHS

CIV_VIOLENCE variables are contextual variables based on sources outside the DHS data.

Universe

  • Angola 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Bangladesh 2014: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Benin 2001: All women age 15-49.
  • Benin 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Burkina Faso 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • Burkina Faso 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Burkina Faso 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Burundi 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Burundi 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Cameroon 2004: All women age 15-49.
  • Cameroon 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Congo (Democratic Republic) 2007: All women age 15-49.
  • Congo (Democratic Republic) 2013: All women age 15-49.
  • Cote d'Ivoire 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • Cote d'Ivoire 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 2000: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 2005: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 2008: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 2014: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Ethiopia 2000: All women age 15-49.
  • Ethiopia 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • Ethiopia 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Ethiopia 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 2008: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 2014: All women age 15-49.
  • Guinea 1999: All women age 15-49.
  • Guinea 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • Guinea 2012: All women age 15-49.
  • India 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Kenya 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Kenya 2008: All women age 15-49.
  • Kenya 2014: All women age 15-49.
  • Lesotho 2004: All women age 15-49.
  • Lesotho 2009: All women age 15-49.
  • Lesotho 2014: All women age 15-49.
  • Madagascar 1997: All women age 15-49.
  • Madagascar 2008: All women age 15-49.
  • Malawi 2000: All women age 15-49.
  • Malawi 2004: All women age 15-49.
  • Malawi 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Malawi 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Mali 2001: All women age 15-49.
  • Mali 2006: All women age 15-49.
  • Mali 2012: All women age 15-49.
  • Morocco 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Mozambique 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Myanmar 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Namibia 2000: All women age 15-49.
  • Namibia 2006: All women age 15-49.
  • Namibia 2013: All women age 15-64.
  • Nepal 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Nepal 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Niger 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • Nigeria 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Nigeria 2008: All women age 15-49.
  • Nigeria 2013: All women age 15-49.
  • Rwanda 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • Rwanda 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Rwanda 2014: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 1997: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2012: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 1999: All women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Zambia 2007: All women age 15-49.
  • Zambia 2013: All women age 15-49.
  • Zimbabwe 1999: All women age 15-49.
  • Zimbabwe 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • Zimbabwe 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Zimbabwe 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Angola: 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B, 2015-M, 2015-H
  • Bangladesh: 2014-H, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B
  • Benin: 2001-W, 2001-M, 2001-C, 2001-B, 2001-H, 2011-M, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B, 2011-H
  • Burkina Faso: 1998-W, 1998-M, 1998-C, 1998-B, 1998-H, 2003-W, 2003-M, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2003-H, 2010-M, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2010-B, 2010-H
  • Burundi: 2010-C, 2010-M, 2010-B, 2010-H, 2010-W, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B, 2016-M, 2016-H
  • Cameroon: 2004-W, 2004-M, 2004-C, 2004-B, 2004-H, 2011-M, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B, 2011-H
  • Congo (Democratic Republic): 2007-H, 2007-C, 2007-B, 2007-M, 2007-W, 2013-W, 2013-H, 2013-C, 2013-B, 2013-M
  • Cote d'Ivoire: 1998-M, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 1998-H, 2011-M, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B, 2011-H
  • Egypt: 2000-W, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2000-H, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2005-B, 2005-H, 2008-W, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2008-H, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B, 2014-H
  • Ethiopia: 2000-W, 2000-M, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2000-H, 2005-W, 2005-M, 2005-C, 2005-B, 2005-H, 2011-W, 2011-M, 2011-C, 2011-B, 2011-H, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B, 2016-M, 2016-H
  • Ghana: 1998-W, 1998-H, 1998-M, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2003-W, 2003-M, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2003-H, 2008-W, 2008-M, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2008-H, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-M, 2014-B, 2014-H
  • Guinea: 1999-W, 1999-M, 1999-C, 1999-B, 1999-H, 2005-W, 2005-M, 2005-C, 2005-B, 2005-H, 2012-W, 2012-M, 2012-C, 2012-B, 2012-H
  • India: 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B, 2015-M, 2015-H
  • Kenya: 2003-W, 2003-M, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2003-H, 2008-W, 2008-M, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2008-H, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-M, 2014-B, 2014-H
  • Lesotho: 2004-W, 2004-M, 2004-H, 2004-C, 2004-B, 2009-W, 2009-M, 2009-H, 2009-C, 2009-B, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B, 2014-M, 2014-H
  • Madagascar: 1997-W, 1997-C, 1997-B, 1997-H, 2008-W, 2008-M, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2008-H
  • Malawi: 2000-W, 2000-M, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2000-H, 2004-W, 2004-M, 2004-C, 2004-B, 2004-H, 2010-W, 2010-M, 2010-C, 2010-B, 2010-H, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B, 2016-M, 2016-H
  • Mali: 2001-W, 2001-M, 2001-C, 2001-B, 2001-H, 2006-W, 2006-M, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2006-H, 2012-W, 2012-M, 2012-C, 2012-B, 2012-H
  • Morocco: 2003-H, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B
  • Mozambique: 2011-W, 2011-M, 2011-C, 2011-B, 2011-H
  • Myanmar: 2015-C, 2015-W, 2015-B, 2015-M, 2015-H
  • Namibia: 2000-W, 2000-M, 2000-H, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2006-W, 2006-M, 2006-H, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2013-W, 2013-M, 2013-H, 2013-C, 2013-B
  • Nepal: 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-H, 2011-M, 2011-B, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B, 2016-M, 2016-H
  • Niger: 1998-W, 1998-M, 1998-C, 1998-B, 1998-H
  • Nigeria: 2003-W, 2003-M, 2003-C, 2003-H, 2003-B, 2008-W, 2008-M, 2008-C, 2008-H, 2008-B, 2013-W, 2013-M, 2013-C, 2013-H, 2013-B
  • Rwanda: 2005-B, 2005-W, 2005-M, 2005-C, 2005-H, 2010-B, 2010-W, 2010-M, 2010-C, 2010-H, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B, 2014-M, 2014-H
  • Senegal: 1997-B, 1997-M, 1997-H, 1997-W, 1997-C, 2005-B, 2005-M, 2005-H, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2010-B, 2010-M, 2010-H, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2012-B, 2012-H, 2012-W, 2012-C, 2015-M, 2015-H, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B, 2016-M, 2016-H
  • Tanzania: 1999-B, 1999-W, 1999-M, 1999-C, 1999-H, 2010-B, 2010-W, 2010-M, 2010-C, 2010-H, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B, 2015-M, 2015-H
  • Zambia: 2007-B, 2007-W, 2007-M, 2007-C, 2007-H, 2013-B, 2013-W, 2013-C, 2013-M, 2013-H
  • Zimbabwe: 1999-H, 1999-B, 1999-W, 1999-M, 1999-C, 2005-H, 2005-B, 2005-W, 2005-M, 2005-C, 2010-H, 2010-B, 2010-W, 2010-M, 2010-C, 2015-H, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B, 2015-M