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Pregnancy complication: Anemia

ANANEMIA_ALL variables are 1-digit variables.


0 = No
1 = Yes
7 = Don't know
8 = Missing
9 = NIU (not in universe)


For women who gave birth in the last three to five years, ANANEMIA_ALL indicates whether anemia was a complication of the pregnancy.

ANANEMIA_ALL consists of separate variables, covering the most recent birth (ANANEMIA_01) and, in some cases, additional births (potentially, ANANEMIA_02, ANANEMIA_03, ANANEMIA_04, ANANEMIA_05, and ANANEMIA_06). For most surveys, this information on anemia as a pregnancy complication was collected for only the most recent birth; exceptions are noted in the comparability section.

Comparability — Index



Apart from universe differences and slight differences in question wording, ANANEMIA_ALL is largely comparable across samples. Specific differences in question wording and surveys collecting these data on more than the most recent birth are noted below.

Comparability - Standard DHS

ANANEMIA_ALL is not included in the standard DHS questionnaire. Surveys collecting data on births beyond the most recent birth are noted below.

Comparability — India [top]

The India 1998 survey collected information on both the most recent birth and the second most recent birth (ANANEMIA_02).


  • India 1998: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 3 years before the survey.
  • Malawi 2004: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey and who received antenatal care while pregnant.
  • India: 1998-W
  • Malawi: 2004-W