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Reason for ceasarean (cesarean) section

Codes and Frequencies

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For women who gave birth in the last three to five years by caesarean (cesarean) section, DELCESRWHY_ALL reports why the caesarean (cesarean) procedure was performed.

DELCESRWHY_ALL consists of separate variables, covering the most recent birth (DELCESRWHY_01) and, in some cases, additional births (potentially, DELCESRWHY_02, DELCESRWHY_03, DELCESRWHY_04, DELCESRWHY_05, and DELCESRWHY_06).


Apart from universe differences and variations in question wording, DELCESRWHY varies across samples in the number of response categories. To maximize comparability, IPUMS-DHS uses composite coding for this variable. The first digit specifies a general category of conditions (e.g., fetus-related condition is code "100," mother's medical condition is code "200," voluntary is code "300"). The second digit distinguishes between specific conditions or reasons (e.g., narrow pelvis is code "210", fetus position is code "120"), and the third digits specifies variations within each condition (e.g., transverse position is code "121" and breech position is code "122"), when this additional information is available.

Comparability - Standard DHS

DELCESRWHY_ALL is a country-specific variable not included in any phase of the standard DHS questionnaire.


  • Morocco 2003: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey, who delivered in a health facility by ceasarean section, and who were told why the surgery was done.
  • Nigeria 2018: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey, and who delivered by caesarean section.
  • Morocco: 2003-W, 2003-W
  • Nigeria: 2018-W, 2018-W