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How umbilical cord was treated

DELUMBTREAT_ALL variables are 2-digit variables.

See DELUMBTREAT_01 for the codes for these variables.


DELUMBTREAT_ALL reports how the child's umbilical cord was treated.

DELUMBTREAT_ALL consists of a set of six separate variables, covering the most recent birth (DELUMBTREAT_01) up to the sixth-most-recent birth (i.e., DELUMBTREAT_02, DELUMBTREAT_03, DELUMBTREAT_04, DELUMBTREAT_05, and DELUMBTREAT_06) during the reference period prior to the survey. If DELUMBTREAT_ALL is included in a data extract, all these separate variables are included in a researcher's data file.

For surveys including this question, information for this variable was collected on all births, up to a maximum of six, in the reference period. In many cases, data were hypothetically collected on up to six births, but no women in the survey had so many births (e.g., no woman had 4 or more births in 3 years, or had 5 or 6 births in 5 years). If, for example, no woman in a survey had 6 births in five years and only blank values were included in the original DHS file, then DELUMBTREAT_06 would not be available for that survey in IPUMS-DHS.


Along with universe differences and slight differences in question wording, DELUMBTREAT_ALL differs across samples in the number of response categories. To increase comparability, IPUMS-DHS uses composite coding. For example, responses under the general heading of "Cotton/cloth" share a common first digit of 1, while the more detailed response of "Sterile bandage" is distinguished in the second digit (coded 11).

Comparability - Standard DHS

DELUMBTREAT_ALL is a country-specific variable, and it is not included in any phase of the standard DHS questionnaire.


  • Morocco 2003: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Yemen 1991: Ever-married women age 15-54 who gave birth at home in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Morocco: 2003-W
  • Yemen: 1991-W