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EDUCLVL (V106)
Highest educational level
Group: Education

Codes and Frequencies



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Description

For women who ever went to school, EDUCLVL (V106) reports the highest level of school they attended. Countries vary in the gradations of their school systems, but EDUCLVL is a standardized variable reporting level of education in four broad categories: No education, Primary, Secondary, and Higher.

The DHS recode manuals state, "In some countries the educational system does not fit naturally within this scheme, and a different categorization was used for the Final Report. In this case, this variable is constructed as accurately as possible from the country's own scheme, and the variable used for the Final Report is included as a country-specific variable."

Comparability — Index

GENERAL
Nepal
Yemen

Comparability

EDUCLVL (V106) is constructed by the DHS administrators to be standardized across countries and surveys as accurately as possible. As noted in the Description tab, EDUCLVL has variations in question wording reflecting the structure of each country's educational system. Users concerned with country-specific question wording should consult the Survey Text tab. Apart from this country-level variation in question wording, EDUCLVL has no comparability issues.

Comparability - Standard DHS

EDUCLVL (V106) is derived from questions in the standard DHS questionnaire from phase I forward. These questions vary in wording depending on each country's education system. The standardized variable is included in every phase of DHS data.

Comparability — Nepal [top]

The 1996 Nepal sample includes slightly different categories than the other samples in EDUCLVL. Persons who attended some secondary (code "2") are separated from those who completed secondary, passing the Secondary Leaving Certificate (SLC) exam. SLC completers and persons who attended higher education are grouped together in "Higher" (code "3").

Comparability — Yemen [top]

The 2013 Yemen sample is not included in EDUCLVL, because the response categories could not be divided into primary, secondary, and higher. See EDUCLVLYE for the country-specific variable indicating the respondent's highest level of education attended.

Universe

  • Afghanistan 2015: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Angola 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Bangladesh 1994: Ever-married women age 10-49.
  • Bangladesh 1997: Ever-married women age 10-49.
  • Bangladesh 2000: Ever-married women age 10-49.
  • Bangladesh 2004: Ever-married women age 10-49.
  • Bangladesh 2007: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Bangladesh 2011: Ever-married women age 12-49.
  • Bangladesh 2014: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Benin 1996: All women age 15-49.
  • Benin 2001: All women age 15-49.
  • Benin 2006: All women age 15-49.
  • Benin 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Burkina Faso 1993: All women age 15-49.
  • Burkina Faso 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • Burkina Faso 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Burkina Faso 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Burundi 1987: All women age 15-49.
  • Burundi 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Burundi 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Cameroon 1991: All women age 15-49.
  • Cameroon 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • Cameroon 2004: All women age 15-49.
  • Cameroon 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Congo (Democratic Republic) 2007: All women age 15-49.
  • Congo (Democratic Republic) 2013: All women age 15-49.
  • Cote d'Ivoire 1994: All women age 15-49.
  • Cote d'Ivoire 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • Cote d'Ivoire 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 1988: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 1992: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 1995: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 2000: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 2005: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 2008: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 2014: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Ethiopia 2000: All women age 15-49.
  • Ethiopia 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • Ethiopia 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Ethiopia 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 1988: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 1993: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 2008: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 2014: All women age 15-49.
  • Guinea 1999: All women age 15-49.
  • Guinea 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • Guinea 2012: All women age 15-49.
  • India 1992: Ever-married women age 13-49.
  • India 1998: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • India 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • India 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Jordan 1990: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Jordan 1997: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Jordan 2002: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Jordan 2007: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Jordan 2009: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Jordan 2012: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Jordan 2017: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Kenya 1989: All women age 15-49.
  • Kenya 1993: All women age 15-49.
  • Kenya 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • Kenya 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Kenya 2008: All women age 15-49.
  • Kenya 2014: All women age 15-49.
  • Lesotho 2004: All women age 15-49.
  • Lesotho 2009: All women age 15-49.
  • Lesotho 2014: All women age 15-49.
  • Madagascar 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Madagascar 1997: All women age 15-49.
  • Madagascar 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Madagascar 2008: All women age 15-49.
  • Malawi 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Malawi 2000: All women age 15-49.
  • Malawi 2004: All women age 15-49.
  • Malawi 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Malawi 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Mali 1987: All women age 15-49.
  • Mali 1995: All women age 15-49.
  • Mali 2001: All women age 15-49.
  • Mali 2006: All women age 15-49.
  • Mali 2012: All women age 15-49.
  • Morocco 1987: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Morocco 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Morocco 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Mozambique 1997: All women age 15-49.
  • Mozambique 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Mozambique 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Myanmar 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Namibia 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Namibia 2000: All women age 15-49.
  • Namibia 2006: All women age 15-49.
  • Namibia 2013: All women age 15-64.
  • Nepal 1996: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Nepal 2001: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Nepal 2006: All women age 15-49.
  • Nepal 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Nepal 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Niger 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Niger 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • Niger 2006: All women age 15-49.
  • Niger 2012: All women age 15-49.
  • Nigeria 1990: All women age 15-49.
  • Nigeria 1999: All women age 10-49.
  • Nigeria 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Nigeria 2008: All women age 15-49.
  • Nigeria 2013: All women age 15-49.
  • Pakistan 1991: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Pakistan 2006: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Pakistan 2012: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Pakistan 2017: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Rwanda 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Rwanda 2000: All women age 15-49.
  • Rwanda 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • Rwanda 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Rwanda 2014: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 1986: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 1997: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2012: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2014: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2017: All women age 15-49.
  • South Africa 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • South Africa 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Sudan 1989: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 1991: All women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 1996: All women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 1999: All women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 2004: All women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Tunisia 1988: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Uganda 1988: All women age 15-49.
  • Uganda 1995: All women age 15-49.
  • Uganda 2001: All women age 15-49.
  • Uganda 2006: All women age 15-49.
  • Uganda 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Uganda 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Yemen 1991: Ever-married women age 15-54.
  • Zambia 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Zambia 1996: All women age 15-49.
  • Zambia 2001: All women age 15-49.
  • Zambia 2007: All women age 15-49.
  • Zambia 2013: All women age 15-49.
  • Zimbabwe 1988: All women age 15-49.
  • Zimbabwe 1994: All women age 15-49.
  • Zimbabwe 1999: All women age 15-49.
  • Zimbabwe 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • Zimbabwe 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Zimbabwe 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Afghanistan: 2015-C, 2015-W, 2015-B
  • Angola: 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B
  • Bangladesh: 1994-C, 1994-B, 1994-W, 1997-C, 1997-B, 1997-W, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2000-W, 2004-C, 2004-B, 2004-W, 2007-C, 2007-B, 2007-W, 2011-C, 2011-B, 2011-W, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B
  • Benin: 1996-W, 1996-C, 1996-B, 2001-W, 2001-C, 2001-B, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B
  • Burkina Faso: 1993-W, 1993-C, 1993-B, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2010-B
  • Burundi: 1987-C, 1987-B, 1987-W, 2010-C, 2010-B, 2010-W, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B
  • Cameroon: 1991-W, 1991-C, 1991-B, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2004-W, 2004-C, 2004-B, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B
  • Congo (Democratic Republic): 2007-C, 2007-B, 2007-W, 2013-W, 2013-C, 2013-B
  • Cote d'Ivoire: 1994-W, 1994-C, 1994-B, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B
  • Egypt: 1988-W, 1988-C, 1988-B, 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 1995-W, 1995-C, 1995-B, 2000-W, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2005-B, 2008-W, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B
  • Ethiopia: 2000-W, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2005-B, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B
  • Ghana: 1988-W, 1988-C, 1988-B, 1993-W, 1993-C, 1993-B, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2008-W, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B
  • Guinea: 1999-W, 1999-C, 1999-B, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2005-B, 2012-W, 2012-C, 2012-B
  • India: 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2005-B, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B
  • Jordan: 1990-W, 1990-C, 1990-B, 1997-W, 1997-C, 1997-B, 2002-W, 2002-C, 2002-B, 2007-W, 2007-C, 2007-B, 2009-W, 2009-C, 2009-B, 2012-W, 2012-C, 2012-B, 2017-W, 2017-C, 2017-B
  • Kenya: 1989-W, 1989-C, 1989-B, 1993-W, 1993-C, 1993-B, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2008-W, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B
  • Lesotho: 2004-W, 2004-C, 2004-B, 2009-W, 2009-C, 2009-B, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B
  • Madagascar: 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 1997-W, 1997-C, 1997-B, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2008-W, 2008-C, 2008-B
  • Malawi: 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 2000-W, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2004-W, 2004-C, 2004-B, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2010-B, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B
  • Mali: 1987-W, 1987-C, 1987-B, 1995-W, 1995-C, 1995-B, 2001-W, 2001-C, 2001-B, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2012-W, 2012-C, 2012-B
  • Morocco: 1987-W, 1987-C, 1987-B, 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B
  • Mozambique: 1997-W, 1997-C, 1997-B, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B
  • Myanmar: 2015-C, 2015-W, 2015-B
  • Namibia: 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 2000-W, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2013-W, 2013-C, 2013-B
  • Nepal: 1996-W, 1996-C, 1996-B, 2001-W, 2001-C, 2001-B, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B
  • Niger: 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2012-W, 2012-C, 2012-B
  • Nigeria: 1990-W, 1990-C, 1990-B, 1999-W, 1999-C, 1999-B, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2008-W, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2013-W, 2013-C, 2013-B
  • Pakistan: 1991-W, 1991-C, 1991-B, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2012-W, 2012-C, 2012-B, 2017-W, 2017-C, 2017-B
  • Rwanda: 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 2000-W, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2005-B, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2010-B, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B
  • Senegal: 1986-B, 1986-W, 1986-C, 1992-B, 1992-W, 1992-C, 1997-B, 1997-W, 1997-C, 2005-B, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2010-B, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2012-B, 2012-W, 2012-C, 2014-B, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B, 2017-W, 2017-C, 2017-B
  • South Africa: 1998-B, 1998-W, 1998-C, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B
  • Sudan: 1989-B, 1989-W, 1989-C
  • Tanzania: 1991-B, 1991-W, 1991-C, 1996-B, 1996-W, 1996-C, 1999-B, 1999-W, 1999-C, 2004-B, 2004-W, 2004-C, 2010-B, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B
  • Tunisia: 1988-W, 1988-C, 1988-B
  • Uganda: 1988-B, 1988-W, 1988-C, 1995-B, 1995-W, 1995-C, 2001-B, 2001-W, 2001-C, 2006-B, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2011-B, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B
  • Yemen: 1991-B, 1991-W, 1991-C
  • Zambia: 1992-B, 1992-W, 1992-C, 1996-B, 1996-W, 1996-C, 2001-B, 2001-W, 2001-C, 2007-B, 2007-W, 2007-C, 2013-B, 2013-W, 2013-C
  • Zimbabwe: 1988-B, 1988-W, 1988-C, 1994-B, 1994-W, 1994-C, 1999-B, 1999-W, 1999-C, 2005-B, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2010-B, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B