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Dwelling has electrical connections
Group: Housing

Codes and Frequencies

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ELCONNECT indicates whether the dwelling has electrical connections or power from an electrical grid.

The information in ELCONNECT is taken from the household record and applies to household residents, not temporary visitors. Researchers may wish to exclude visitors (coded "2") using the following variables:

RESIDENT when women, children, or births are the unit of analysis;
HHRESIDENT when household members are the unit of analysis;
RESIDENTMN when men are the unit of analysis.

Comparability — Index

South Africa


Along with universe difference, ELCONNECT differs across samples in question wording and the detail of response categories. See country-specific Comparability, below.

Comparability - Standard DHS

ELCONNECT is a country-specific household variable not included in the standard DHS questionnaire.

Comparability — Egypt [top]

The 1988 and 1992 Egyptian surveys asked about whether the dwelling has electrical connections and, if so, whether the connections are in all or only part of the dwelling.

Comparability — South Africa [top]

The 2016 South African survey asked whether the dwelling had electricity "that is connected to the mains" (presumably, connected to a power grid rather than, say, from generator on the property).


  • Egypt 1988: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 1992: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • South Africa 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Egypt: 1988-W, 1988-C, 1988-B, 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 1992-H
  • South Africa: 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B, 2016-M, 2016-H