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Ethnicity, Ghana

Codes and Frequencies

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ETHNICITYGH (V131GH) is a variable specific to Ghana that reports responses to a question about the woman's ethnicity. The groups identified vary across samples. See Comparability.


ETHNICITYGH (V131GH) is a country-specific variable for Ghana that collects information about the ethnic group to which the woman belongs. While five ethnic groups (with codes 01 through 05) are reported for all Ghanaian samples, the number and names of other ethnicities vary across samples. IPUMS-DHS therefore uses a composite coding system, in which other groups (beyond the first five) share a common first digit of 1, with specific detail preserved by the code's second digit. Broad "other" categories (other Ghanaian, other African, other unspecified) share a common first digit of 2.

Comparability - Standard DHS

ETHNICITY (V131) is a country-specific variable included in the standard DHS questionnaire for Phase 2 forward, with no standard wording or response categories.


  • Ghana 1988: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 1993: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 2008: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 2014: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana: 1988-B, 1988-C, 1988-W, 1993-W, 1993-B, 1993-C, 1998-C, 1998-B, 1998-W, 2003-C, 2003-W, 2003-B, 2003-W, 2008-B, 2008-W, 2008-W, 2008-C, 2014-W, 2014-B, 2014-C, 2014-W, 2016-W, 2016-C