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Ethnicity, Pakistan

Codes and Frequencies

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ETHNICITYPK (V131PK) is a variable specific to Pakistan that reports the woman's ethnicity according to responses to a question about the woman's first language. The groups identified vary across samples. See Comparability.


ETHNICITYPK (V131PK) is a country-specific variable for Pakistan that collects information about the ethnic group to which the woman belongs. Unlike most other countries' surveys that directly ask about ethnicity, ETHNICITYPK uses a question about the respondent's first language to determine her ethnicity.

While 14 ethnic groups/first languages (with codes 1 through 14) are reported for all Pakistan samples, the number and names of other ethnicities vary across samples. IPUMS-DHS therefore uses a composite coding system, in which other groups (beyond the first 14) share a common first digit of "2," with specific detail preserved by the code's second digits.

Comparability - Standard DHS

ETHNICITY (V131) is a country-specific variable included in the standard DHS questionnaire for Phase 2 forward, with no standard wording or response categories.


  • Pakistan 2006: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Pakistan 2012: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Pakistan 2017: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Pakistan: 2006-B, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2012-W, 2012-B, 2012-W, 2012-C, 2017-W, 2017-W, 2017-C, 2017-B