Data Cart

Your data extract

0 variables
0 samples
View Cart
EXPOSURE1 (V623)
Fecund, pregnant, amenorrheic, or infecund

Codes and Frequencies



Can't find the category you are looking for? Try the Detailed codes

Description

EXPOSURE1 (V623) is a constructed variable that draws upon responses to several questions to differentiate between pregnant women, postpartum amenorrheic women, menopausal or infecund women, and fecund women.

When children are chosen as the unit of analysis, the woman respondent indicates the mother of the child.

According to the DHS Recode Manuals, these categories are actualized as follows:

  • Pregnant women
  • Postpartum amenorrheic women are those whose period has not returned since the last birth in the three/five years preceding the survey.
  • Women are defined as being menopausal if they are not pregnant and not postpartum amenorrheic, are not currently using a contraceptive method, and have not had a period in the six months preceding the survey or report they are in menopause.
  • Women are defined as being infecund if they are not menopausal and not postpartum amenorrheic and not pregnant, have had no birth in the five years preceding the survey, and either (Model "A" countries) have been continuously married and have not used contraception in the five years preceding the survey, or (Model "B" countries) have been married one time and first married five or more years before the survey and have never used contraception.
  • Fecund women are all women not included in the preceding categories.

Comparability — Index

GENERAL
Benin
Cote d'Ivoire
Ghana
Kenya
Mali
Mozambique
Niger
Uganda
Zimbabwe

Comparability

Apart from changes in the universe, EXPOSURE1 (V623) has limited comparability issues. For some samples, postpartum amenorrhea was determined from the most recent birth in the previous 3 years, while for the majority of samples it was determined for the 5 years preceding the survey. See exceptions below.

Comparability - Standard DHS

EXPOSURE1 (V623) is constructed from questions in the standard DHS questionnaire for Phase 2 forward. Starting in Phase 2, countries had the option to define postpartum amenorrhea based on the most recent birth in the preceding three years, as opposed to five years.

Comparability — Benin [top]

For Benin 1996, amenorrhea was determined from whether the women's period returned since the last birth in the last three years before the survey.

Comparability — Cote d'Ivoire [top]

For Cote d'Ivoire 1994, amenorrhea was determined from whether the women's period returned since the last birth in the last three years before the survey.

Comparability — Ghana [top]

For Ghana, 1993, amenorrhea was determined from whether the women's period returned since the last birth in the last three years before the survey.

Comparability — Kenya [top]

For Kenya 1998, amenorrhea was determined from whether the women's period returned since the last birth in the last three years before the survey.

Comparability — Mali [top]

For Mali 1995, amenorrhea was determined from whether the women's period returned since the last birth in the last three years before the survey.

Comparability — Mozambique [top]

For Mozambique 1997, amenorrhea was determined from whether the women's period returned since the last birth in the last three years before the survey.

Comparability — Niger [top]

For Niger 1998, amenorrhea was determined from whether the women's period returned since the last birth in the last three years before the survey.

Comparability — Uganda [top]

For Uganda 1995, amenorrhea was determined from whether the women's period returned since the last birth in the last three years before the survey.

Comparability — Zimbabwe [top]

For Zimbabwe 1994, amenorrhea was determined from whether the women's period returned since the last birth in the last three years before the survey.

Universe

  • Afghanistan 2015: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Angola 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Bangladesh 1994: Ever-married women age 10-49.
  • Bangladesh 1997: Ever-married women age 10-49.
  • Bangladesh 2000: Ever-married women age 10-49.
  • Bangladesh 2004: Ever-married women age 10-49.
  • Bangladesh 2007: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Bangladesh 2011: Ever-married women age 12-49 who are currently married.
  • Bangladesh 2014: Ever-married women age 15-49 who are currently married.
  • Benin 1996: All women age 15-49.
  • Benin 2001: All women age 15-49.
  • Benin 2006: All women age 15-49.
  • Benin 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Benin 2017: All women age 15-49.
  • Burkina Faso 1993: All women age 15-49.
  • Burkina Faso 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • Burkina Faso 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Burkina Faso 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Burundi 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Burundi 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Cameroon 1991: All women age 15-49.
  • Cameroon 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • Cameroon 2004: All women age 15-49.
  • Cameroon 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Chad 1996: All women age 15-49.
  • Chad 2004: All women age 15-49.
  • Chad 2014: All women age 15-49.
  • Congo (Democratic Republic) 2007: All women age 15-49.
  • Congo (Democratic Republic) 2013: All women age 15-49.
  • Cote d'Ivoire 1994: All women age 15-49.
  • Cote d'Ivoire 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • Cote d'Ivoire 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 1992: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 1995: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 2000: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 2003: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 2005: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 2008: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 2014: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Ethiopia 2000: All women age 15-49.
  • Ethiopia 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • Ethiopia 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Ethiopia 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 1993: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 2008: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 2014: All women age 15-49.
  • Guinea 1999: All women age 15-49.
  • Guinea 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • Guinea 2012: All women age 15-49.
  • Guinea 2018: All women age 15-49.
  • India 1992: Ever-married women age 13-49.
  • India 1998: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • India 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • India 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Jordan 1990: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Jordan 1997: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Jordan 2002: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Jordan 2007: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Jordan 2009: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Jordan 2012: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Jordan 2017: Ever-married women age 15-49 who are currently married.
  • Kenya 1993: All women age 15-49.
  • Kenya 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • Kenya 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Kenya 2008: All women age 15-49.
  • Kenya 2014: Women age 15-49 in households selected for the long questionnaire.
  • Lesotho 2004: All women age 15-49.
  • Lesotho 2009: All women age 15-49.
  • Lesotho 2014: All women age 15-49.
  • Liberia 2007: All women age 15-49.
  • Liberia 2013: All women age 15-49.
  • Madagascar 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Madagascar 1997: All women age 15-49.
  • Madagascar 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Madagascar 2008: All women age 15-49.
  • Malawi 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Malawi 2000: All women age 15-49.
  • Malawi 2004: All women age 15-49.
  • Malawi 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Malawi 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Mali 1995: All women age 15-49.
  • Mali 2001: All women age 15-49.
  • Mali 2006: All women age 15-49.
  • Mali 2012: All women age 15-49.
  • Mali 2018: All women age 15-49.
  • Morocco 1992: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Morocco 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Mozambique 1997: All women age 15-49.
  • Mozambique 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Mozambique 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Myanmar 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Namibia 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Namibia 2000: All women age 15-49.
  • Namibia 2006: All women age 15-49.
  • Namibia 2013: All women age 15-49.
  • Niger 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Niger 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • Niger 2006: All women age 15-49.
  • Niger 2012: All women age 15-49.
  • Nigeria 1990: All women age 15-49.
  • Nigeria 1999: All women age 10-49.
  • Nigeria 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Nigeria 2008: All women age 15-49.
  • Nigeria 2013: All women age 15-49.
  • Nigeria 2018: All women age 15-49.
  • Pakistan 1991: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Pakistan 2006: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Pakistan 2012: Ever-married women age 15-49 who are currently married.
  • Rwanda 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Rwanda 2000: All women age 15-49.
  • Rwanda 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • Rwanda 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Rwanda 2014: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 1997: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2012: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2014: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2017: All women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 1991: All women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 1996: All women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 1999: All women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 2004: All women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Uganda 1995: All women age 15-49.
  • Uganda 2001: All women age 15-49.
  • Uganda 2006: All women age 15-49.
  • Uganda 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Uganda 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Yemen 1991: Ever-married women age 15-54.
  • Yemen 2013: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Zambia 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Zambia 1996: All women age 15-49.
  • Zambia 2001: All women age 15-49.
  • Zambia 2007: All women age 15-49.
  • Zambia 2013: All women age 15-49.
  • Zambia 2018: All women age 15-49.
  • Zimbabwe 1994: All women age 15-49.
  • Zimbabwe 1999: All women age 15-49.
  • Zimbabwe 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • Zimbabwe 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Zimbabwe 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Afghanistan: 2015-C, 2015-W, 2015-B, 2015-W
  • Angola: 2015-W, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B
  • Bangladesh: 1994-C, 1994-W, 1994-B, 1994-W, 1997-C, 1997-W, 1997-B, 1997-W, 2000-C, 2000-W, 2000-B, 2000-W, 2004-C, 2004-W, 2004-B, 2004-W, 2007-C, 2007-W, 2007-B, 2007-W, 2011-C, 2011-W, 2011-B, 2011-W, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B, 2014-W
  • Benin: 1996-W, 1996-C, 1996-B, 2001-W, 2001-C, 2001-B, 2006-W, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2011-W, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B, 2017-W, 2017-W, 2017-C, 2017-B
  • Burkina Faso: 1993-W, 1993-C, 1993-B, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2003-W, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2010-W, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2010-B
  • Burundi: 2010-C, 2010-W, 2010-B, 2010-W, 2016-W, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B
  • Cameroon: 1991-W, 1991-C, 1991-B, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2004-W, 2004-C, 2004-B, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B
  • Chad: 1996-W, 1996-B, 1996-C, 2004-W, 2004-B, 2004-C, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B
  • Congo (Democratic Republic): 2007-C, 2007-B, 2007-W, 2013-W, 2013-C, 2013-B
  • Cote d'Ivoire: 1994-W, 1994-C, 1994-B, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B
  • Egypt: 1992-W, 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 1995-W, 1995-W, 1995-C, 1995-B, 2000-W, 2000-W, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2003-W, 2005-W, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2005-B, 2008-W, 2008-W, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-W, 2014-B
  • Ethiopia: 2000-W, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2005-W, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2005-B, 2011-W, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B, 2016-W
  • Ghana: 1993-W, 1993-C, 1993-B, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2003-W, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2008-W, 2008-W, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-W, 2014-B
  • Guinea: 1999-W, 1999-C, 1999-B, 2005-W, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2005-B, 2012-W, 2012-C, 2012-B, 2018-C, 2018-B, 2018-W, 2018-W
  • India: 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2005-W, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2005-B, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B, 2015-W
  • Jordan: 1990-W, 1990-C, 1990-B, 1990-W, 1997-W, 1997-C, 1997-B, 1997-W, 2002-W, 2002-C, 2002-B, 2002-W, 2007-W, 2007-C, 2007-B, 2007-W, 2009-W, 2009-C, 2009-B, 2009-W, 2012-W, 2012-C, 2012-B, 2012-W, 2017-W, 2017-W, 2017-C, 2017-B
  • Kenya: 1993-W, 1993-C, 1993-B, 1998-W, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2003-W, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2008-W, 2008-W, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-W, 2014-B
  • Lesotho: 2004-W, 2004-C, 2004-B, 2009-W, 2009-W, 2009-C, 2009-B, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B, 2014-W
  • Liberia: 2007-W, 2007-C, 2007-B, 2013-W, 2013-C, 2013-W, 2013-B
  • Madagascar: 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 1997-W, 1997-C, 1997-B, 2003-W, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2008-W, 2008-W, 2008-C, 2008-B
  • Malawi: 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 2000-W, 2000-W, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2004-W, 2004-W, 2004-C, 2004-B, 2010-W, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2010-B, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B, 2016-W
  • Mali: 1995-W, 1995-C, 1995-B, 2001-W, 2001-W, 2001-C, 2001-B, 2006-W, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2012-W, 2012-W, 2012-C, 2012-B, 2018-C, 2018-B, 2018-W, 2018-W
  • Morocco: 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-W, 1992-B, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-W, 2003-B
  • Mozambique: 1997-W, 1997-C, 1997-B, 2003-W, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2011-W, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B
  • Myanmar: 2015-C, 2015-W, 2015-B, 2015-W
  • Namibia: 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 2000-W, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2006-W, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2013-W, 2013-W, 2013-C, 2013-B
  • Niger: 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2006-W, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2012-W, 2012-W, 2012-C, 2012-B
  • Nigeria: 1990-W, 1990-C, 1990-B, 1999-W, 1999-C, 1999-B, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2008-W, 2008-W, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2013-W, 2013-W, 2013-C, 2013-B, 2018-C, 2018-B, 2018-W, 2018-W
  • Pakistan: 1991-W, 1991-C, 1991-B, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2012-W, 2012-C, 2012-W, 2012-B
  • Rwanda: 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 2000-W, 2000-W, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2005-B, 2005-W, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2010-B, 2010-W, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B, 2014-W
  • Senegal: 1992-B, 1992-W, 1992-C, 1997-B, 1997-W, 1997-C, 2005-B, 2005-W, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2010-B, 2010-W, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2012-B, 2012-W, 2012-W, 2012-C, 2014-B, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-W, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B, 2015-W, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B, 2016-W, 2017-W, 2017-C, 2017-B, 2017-W
  • Tanzania: 1991-B, 1991-W, 1991-C, 1996-B, 1996-W, 1996-C, 1999-B, 1999-W, 1999-C, 2004-B, 2004-W, 2004-W, 2004-C, 2010-B, 2010-W, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B, 2015-W
  • Uganda: 1995-B, 1995-W, 1995-C, 2001-B, 2001-W, 2001-W, 2001-C, 2006-B, 2006-W, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2011-B, 2011-W, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B, 2016-W
  • Yemen: 1991-B, 1991-W, 1991-C, 2013-B, 2013-W, 2013-C, 2013-W
  • Zambia: 1992-B, 1992-W, 1992-C, 1996-B, 1996-W, 1996-C, 2001-B, 2001-W, 2001-C, 2007-B, 2007-W, 2007-W, 2007-C, 2013-B, 2013-W, 2013-C, 2013-W, 2018-W, 2018-C, 2018-B, 2018-W
  • Zimbabwe: 1994-B, 1994-W, 1994-W, 1994-C, 1999-B, 1999-W, 1999-W, 1999-C, 2005-B, 2005-W, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2010-B, 2010-W, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B, 2015-W