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FCCIRC (G102)
Ever circumcised

Codes and Frequencies



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Description

FCCIRC (G102) indicates whether the woman had been circumcised. Question wording varies across samples. See Comparability.

Comparability — Index

GENERAL
Burkina Faso
Liberia
Nigeria

Comparability

Along with universe differences, the question wording and response categories for FCCIRC (G102) vary across surveys, but the variable is largely comparable across samples.

The majority of samples use question wording from one of three standard DHS modules on female circumcision (See Comparability - Standard DHS below).

Upon asking if the woman has heard of female circumcision by providing a description of the practice, a minority of samples ask the woman a less specific question, "Did you undergo this type of practice?" or "Have you yourself ever had this type of practice?"

Samples diverging from these question formats are described below.

Comparability - Standard DHS

Questions about female circumcision are not included in the standard DHS questionnaire, but the three forms of the standard module about female circumcision collect information for FCCIRC (G102). The first version of the module asks, "Have you yourself ever had your genitals cut?" The second and third versions of the standard module ask, "Have you yourself ever been circumcised?" Question wording in samples vary based on these variations in the DHS module.

Comparability — Burkina Faso [top]

Although the Burkina Faso 1998 survey text includes standard question wording for FCCIRC (G102) (See Survey Text), the variable consolidates two questions that pertain to whether the woman was circumcised and the type of circumcision she underwent. Accordingly, IPUMS-DHS coded the responses to maximize comparability across samples, with any response concerning the type of circumcision recoded as "Yes" in the integrated codes.

Comparability — Liberia [top]

The 2007 and 2013 Liberia surveys ask whether the respondent is a member of the Sande society or a woman's bush society. According to the 2007 DHS Final Report:

In Liberia, FGC [female genital cutting] is usually implemented through bush societies or the Sande society, which refer to bush schools for young girls. Girls are taken to the bush where they are taught local customs, sex education, feminine hygiene, and housekeeping skills. They also undergo FGC, which in Liberia consists of removing some or all of the clitoris. Because of the secretive nature of the bush society and the sensitivity of direct questions about FGC, women interviewed in the 2007 LDHS were asked if they had ever heard of a bush society like the Sand society, and, if so, whether they were a member of the Sande society or a woman's bush society. They were further asked whether they thought that this should continue or should stop.

Comparability — Nigeria [top]

Upon providing the woman with a description of the various types of female circumcision practiced in Nigeria (see Survey Text in FCKNOW), the Nigeria 2013 survey asks the woman, "Have you yourself ever had any of these procedures performed on you?"

A DHS final report for Nigeria includes the following text on comparability problems: "The 2008 NDHS showed a higher prevalence of female circumcision than that reported in the 2003 NDHS (30 percent versus 19 percent). However, this increase was actually due to variations in the definition of FGC used in the two surveys. In the 2008 NDHS, some of the field teams included angurya and gishiri cuts in the FGC category while others did not. This was not the case in 2003 NDHS. In the 2013 NDHS, the definition of FGC explicitly followed the WHO definition ... and captured the practice of angurya and gishiri cuts. Any comparisons of FGC data from the 2013 survey with data from these earlier surveys should be made with caution."

Universe

  • Benin 2001: All women age 15-49.
  • Benin 2006: Women age 15-49 who have heard of female circumcision.
  • Benin 2011: Women age 15-49 who have heard of female circumcision.
  • Burkina Faso 1998: Women age 15-49 who have heard of female circumcision.
  • Burkina Faso 2003: Women age 15-49 who have heard of female circumcision.
  • Burkina Faso 2010: Women age 15-49 who have heard of female circumcision.
  • Cameroon 2004: Women age 15-49 who were selected and interviewed for the FC module, and who have heard of female circumcision.
  • Chad 2004: Women age 15-49 who have heard of female circumcision.
  • Chad 2014: Women age 15-49 who have heard of female circumcision, in households not selected for the men's survey.
  • Cote d'Ivoire 1994: All women age 15-49.
  • Cote d'Ivoire 1998: Women age 15-49 who have heard of female circumcision.
  • Cote d'Ivoire 2011: Women age 15-49 who have heard of female circumcision.
  • Egypt 1995: Ever-married women age 15-49 who have heard of female circumcision.
  • Egypt 2003: Ever-married women age 15-49 who have heard of female circumcision.
  • Egypt 2005: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 2008: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 2014: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Ethiopia 2000: All women age 15-49.
  • Ethiopia 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • Ethiopia 2016: Women age 15-49 who were selected and interviewed for the FC module, and who have heard of female circumcision.
  • Ghana 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Guinea 1999: All women age 15-49.
  • Guinea 2005: Women age 15-49 who have heard of female circumcision.
  • Guinea 2012: Women age 15-49 who have heard of female circumcision.
  • Guinea 2018: Women age 15-49 who have heard of female circumcision.
  • Kenya 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • Kenya 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Kenya 2008: Women age 15-49 who have heard of female circumcision.
  • Kenya 2014: Women age 15-49 who have heard of female circumcision, in households selected for the long questionnaire
  • Liberia 2007: Women age 15-49 who have heard of bush societies or the Sande society.
  • Liberia 2013: Women age 15-49 who have heard of bush societies or the Sande society.
  • Mali 1995: All women age 15-49.
  • Mali 2001: Women age 15-49 who have heard of female circumcision.
  • Mali 2006: Women age 15-49 who have heard of female circumcision.
  • Mali 2012: Women age 15-49 who have heard of female circumcision.
  • Mali 2018: Women age 15-49 who have heard of female circumcision, in households not selected for the men's survey.
  • Niger 1998: Women age 15-49 who have heard of female circumcision.
  • Niger 2006: Women age 15-49 who have heard of female circumcision.
  • Niger 2012: Women age 15-49 who have heard of female circumcision.
  • Nigeria 1999: All women age 10-49.
  • Nigeria 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Nigeria 2008: Women age 15-49 who have heard of female circumcision.
  • Nigeria 2013: Women age 15-49 who have heard of female circumcision.
  • Nigeria 2018: Women age 15-49 who have heard of female circumcision, in households not selected for the men's survey.
  • Senegal 2005: Women age 15-49 who have heard of female circumcision.
  • Senegal 2010: Women age 15-49 who have heard of female circumcision.
  • Senegal 2014: Women age 15-49 who have heard of female circumcision.
  • Senegal 2015: Women age 15-49 who have heard of female circumcision.
  • Senegal 2016: Women age 15-49 who have heard of female circumcision.
  • Senegal 2017: Women age 15-49 who have heard of female circumcision.
  • Tanzania 1996: All women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 2004: Women age 15-49 who have heard of female circumcision.
  • Tanzania 2010: Women age 15-49 who have heard of female circumcision.
  • Tanzania 2015: Women age 15-49 who have heard of female circumcision.
  • Uganda 2006: Women age 15-49 who have heard of female circumcision.
  • Uganda 2011: Women age 15-49 who have heard of female circumcision.
  • Uganda 2016: Women age 15-49 who have heard of female circumcision.
  • Yemen 2013: Women age 15-49 who have heard of female circumcision.
  • Benin: 2001-W, 2001-C, 2001-B, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B
  • Burkina Faso: 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2010-B
  • Cameroon: 2004-W, 2004-C, 2004-B
  • Chad: 2004-W, 2004-B, 2004-C, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B
  • Cote d'Ivoire: 1994-W, 1994-C, 1994-B, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B
  • Egypt: 1995-W, 1995-C, 1995-B, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2005-B, 2008-W, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B
  • Ethiopia: 2000-W, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2005-B, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B
  • Ghana: 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B
  • Guinea: 1999-W, 1999-C, 1999-B, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2005-B, 2012-W, 2012-C, 2012-B, 2018-C, 2018-B, 2018-W
  • Kenya: 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2008-W, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B
  • Liberia: 2007-W, 2007-C, 2007-B, 2013-W, 2013-C, 2013-B
  • Mali: 1995-W, 1995-C, 1995-B, 2001-W, 2001-C, 2001-B, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2012-W, 2012-C, 2012-B, 2018-C, 2018-B, 2018-W
  • Niger: 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2012-W, 2012-C, 2012-B
  • Nigeria: 1999-W, 1999-C, 1999-B, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2008-W, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2013-W, 2013-C, 2013-B, 2018-C, 2018-B, 2018-W
  • Senegal: 2005-B, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2010-B, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2014-B, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B, 2017-W, 2017-C, 2017-B
  • Tanzania: 1996-B, 1996-W, 1996-C, 2004-B, 2004-W, 2004-C, 2010-B, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B
  • Uganda: 2006-B, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2011-B, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B
  • Yemen: 2013-B, 2013-W, 2013-C