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Respondent's type of circumcision

Codes and Frequencies

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For women who were circumcised, FCTYPE indicates the type of genital cutting carried out as circumcision (i.e., clitoridectomy, excision, infibulation, other).

The World Health Organization defines the types of female genital cutting/circumcision as follows:

1. Clitoridectomy: partial or total removal of the clitoris (the erectile part of the female genitals) and, in very rare cases, only the prepuce (the fold of skin surrounding the clitoris).
2. Excision: partial or total removal of the clitoris and the labia minora, with or without excision of the labia majora (the labia are 'the lips' that surround the vagina).
3. Infibulation: narrowing of the vaginal opening through the creation of a covering seal. The seal is formed by cutting and repositioning the inner, or outer, labia, with or without removal of the clitoris.
4. Other: all other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical purposes, e.g., pricking, piercing, incising, scraping and cauterizing the genital area.

Comparability — Index

Cote d'Ivoire


Along with universe differences and question wording differences, response categories vary in FCTYPE, though the variable is broadly comparable across samples.

Samples including FCTYPE generally differ in whether they include a fourth "other" category in addition to clitoridectomy, excision, and infibulation.

Samples may also differ in degree of specification in response categories. To maximize comparability across samples, IPUMS-DHS uses composite coding for FCTYPE: broad categories share a common first digit (1 for clitoridectomy, 2 for excision, 3 for infibulation, and 4 for other practices), while the second digit shows detailed categories available only in some samples.

Additional differences include whether the question included descriptions of the types of circumcision. Variations in the question wording, the amount of descriptive detail, and the use of follow-up probing questions may limit the comparability of this variable across samples. See the Question Wording tab for details on question phrasing.

Samples with additional comparability issues are discussed below.

Comparability - Standard DHS

FCTYPE is included in neither the standard DHS questionnaire nor in any of the three versions of the standard DHS module on female circumcision.

Comparability — Cote d'Ivoire [top]

Cote D'Ivoire 1998 does not provide a list of response categories on the survey form. This may have skewed how responses were coded, as a considerable proportion of responses were categorized as "other."

Comparability — Niger [top]

Niger 1998 does not provide a list of response categories in the survey form, which may have affected how responses were coded during data entry.


  • Burkina Faso 1998: Women age 15-49 who have heard of FC and are circumcised.
  • Cote d'Ivoire 1998: Women age 15-49 who are circumcised.
  • Guinea 1999: Women age 15-49 who are circumcised.
  • Mali 1995: Women age 15-49 who are circumcised.
  • Niger 1998: Women age 15-49 who are circumcised.
  • Nigeria 1999: Women age 10-49 who are circumcised.
  • Tanzania 1996: Women age 15-49 who are circumcised.
  • Burkina Faso: 1998-B, 1998-C, 1998-W
  • Cote d'Ivoire: 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B
  • Guinea: 1999-C, 1999-B, 1999-W
  • Mali: 1995-W, 1995-C, 1995-B
  • Niger: 1998-B, 1998-C, 1998-W
  • Nigeria: 1999-B, 1999-C, 1999-W
  • Tanzania: 1996-W, 1996-B, 1996-C