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FRIDGE (V122)
HH has refrigerator

Codes and Frequencies



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Description

FRIDGE (V122) indicates whether the household has a refrigerator. Some samples specified that the refrigerator must be working or must be owned by the household. See comparability.

Comparability — Index

GENERAL
Chad
Egypt
Ghana
India
Lesotho
Liberia
Mali
Nigeria
South Africa
Tanzania
Zimbabwe

Comparability

Along with universe differences, FRIDGE (V122) has substantial differences in question wording that reduce comparability across samples. While most surveys simply asked, "Does this/your household have a refrigerator," some specified that the appliance must be in working order. Some samples used the word "own" rather than "have," which might exclude rental units offering use but not ownership of the appliance. In a few cases, the questionnaire referred to "refrigerator or freezer." See below for information about exceptions to the general standard.

Comparability - DHS Standard

The question "Does your household have a refrigerator?" was first included in the Phase 2 standard DHS questionnaire, and the same wording was used in subsequent Phases.

Comparability — Chad [top]

The 1996 and 2004 Chad surveys asked whether the household had a "refrigerator/freezer."

Comparability — Egypt [top]

The 1988 Egyptian survey asked whether a refrigerator was "found in the dwelling unit," while later Egyptian surveys asked whether the household "had" a refrigerator (which might carry more connotations of ownership).

Comparability — Ghana [top]

For Ghana, only the 1993 survey specified that the refrigerator must be "functioning."

Comparability — India [top]

For India, the 1992 and 1998 surveys asked whether the household "owned" a refrigerator, while the 2005 survey asked whether the household "had" a refrigerator.

Comparability — Lesotho [top]

The 2004, 2009 and 2014 Lesotho surveys asked whether the household had "a refrigerator in working condition."

Comparability — Liberia [top]

The 1986, 2007, and 2013 Liberian surveys asked whether the household had "an icebox."

Comparability — Mali [top]

The 1987 and 1995 Mali surveys asked whether the household had a "refrigerator or freezer," while later Mali surveys referred to only a refrigerator.

Comparability — Nigeria [top]

Of the various Nigerian surveys with this variable, only the 2008 sample specified that the refrigerator must be "in good working order."

Comparability — South Africa [top]

The 2016 South African survey specified that the refrigerator must be "in working condition"; the 1998 South African survey did not.

Comparability — Tanzania [top]

Of the various Tanzanian surveys with this variable, only the 2015 sample specified that the refrigerator must be "in working condition."

Comparability — Zimbabwe [top]

Of the various Zimbabwe surveys with this variable, only the 2010 survey referred to a refrigerator "in working condition."

Universe

  • Afghanistan 2015: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Angola 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Bangladesh 2007: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Bangladesh 2011: Ever-married women age 12-49.
  • Bangladesh 2014: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Benin 1996: All women age 15-49.
  • Benin 2001: All women age 15-49.
  • Benin 2006: All women age 15-49.
  • Benin 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Benin 2017: All women age 15-49.
  • Burkina Faso 1993: All women age 15-49.
  • Burkina Faso 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • Burkina Faso 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Burkina Faso 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Burundi 1987: All women age 15-49.
  • Burundi 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Burundi 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Cameroon 1991: All women age 15-49.
  • Cameroon 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • Cameroon 2004: All women age 15-49.
  • Cameroon 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Chad 1996: All women age 15-49.
  • Chad 2004: All women age 15-49.
  • Chad 2014: All women age 15-49.
  • Congo (Democratic Republic) 2007: All women age 15-49.
  • Congo (Democratic Republic) 2013: All women age 15-49.
  • Cote d'Ivoire 1994: All women age 15-49.
  • Cote d'Ivoire 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • Cote d'Ivoire 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 1988: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 1992: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 1995: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 2000: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 2003: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 2005: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 2008: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 2014: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Ethiopia 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • Ethiopia 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Ethiopia 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 1988: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 1993: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 2008: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 2014: All women age 15-49.
  • Guinea 1999: All women age 15-49.
  • Guinea 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • Guinea 2012: All women age 15-49.
  • Guinea 2018: All women age 15-49.
  • India 1992: Ever-married women age 13-49.
  • India 1998: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • India 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • India 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Jordan 1990: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Jordan 1997: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Jordan 2002: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Jordan 2007: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Jordan 2009: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Jordan 2012: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Jordan 2017: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Kenya 1989: All women age 15-49.
  • Kenya 1993: All women age 15-49.
  • Kenya 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • Kenya 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Kenya 2008: All women age 15-49.
  • Kenya 2014: All women age 15-49.
  • Lesotho 2004: All women age 15-49.
  • Lesotho 2009: All women age 15-49.
  • Lesotho 2014: All women age 15-49.
  • Liberia 1986: All women age 15-49.
  • Liberia 2007: All women age 15-49.
  • Liberia 2013: All women age 15-49.
  • Madagascar 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Madagascar 1997: All women age 15-49.
  • Madagascar 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Madagascar 2008: All women age 15-49.
  • Malawi 2004: All women age 15-49.
  • Malawi 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Malawi 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Mali 1987: All women age 15-49.
  • Mali 1995: All women age 15-49.
  • Mali 2001: All women age 15-49.
  • Mali 2006: All women age 15-49.
  • Mali 2012: All women age 15-49.
  • Mali 2018: All women age 15-49.
  • Morocco 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Morocco 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Mozambique 1997: All women age 15-49.
  • Mozambique 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Mozambique 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Myanmar 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Namibia 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Namibia 2000: All women age 15-49.
  • Namibia 2006: All women age 15-49.
  • Namibia 2013: All women age 15-64.
  • Nepal 2006: All women age 15-49.
  • Nepal 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Nepal 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Niger 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Niger 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • Niger 2006: All women age 15-49.
  • Niger 2012: All women age 15-49.
  • Nigeria 1990: All women age 15-49.
  • Nigeria 1999: All women age 10-49.
  • Nigeria 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Nigeria 2008: All women age 15-49.
  • Nigeria 2013: All women age 15-49.
  • Nigeria 2018: All women age 15-49.
  • Pakistan 1991: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Pakistan 2006: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Pakistan 2012: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Pakistan 2017: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Rwanda 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Rwanda 2000: All women age 15-49.
  • Rwanda 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • Rwanda 2008: All women age 15-49.
  • Rwanda 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Rwanda 2014: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 1986: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 1997: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2012: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2014: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2017: All women age 15-49.
  • South Africa 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • South Africa 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Sri Lanka 1987: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Sudan 1989: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 1991: All women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 1996: All women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 1999: All women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 2004: All women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Tunisia 1988: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Uganda 1988: All women age 15-49.
  • Uganda 1995: All women age 15-49.
  • Uganda 2001: All women age 15-49.
  • Uganda 2006: All women age 15-49.
  • Uganda 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Uganda 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Yemen 1991: Ever-married women age 15-54.
  • Yemen 2013: All women age 15-49.
  • Zambia 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Zambia 1996: All women age 15-49.
  • Zambia 2001: All women age 15-49.
  • Zambia 2007: All women age 15-49.
  • Zambia 2013: All women age 15-49.
  • Zambia 2018: All women age 15-49.
  • Zimbabwe 1988: All women age 15-49.
  • Zimbabwe 1994: All women age 15-49.
  • Zimbabwe 1999: All women age 15-49.
  • Zimbabwe 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • Zimbabwe 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Afghanistan: 2015-C, 2015-W, 2015-B, 2015-W
  • Angola: 2015-W, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B
  • Bangladesh: 2007-C, 2007-W, 2007-B, 2007-W, 2011-C, 2011-W, 2011-B, 2011-W, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B, 2014-W
  • Benin: 1996-W, 1996-C, 1996-B, 2001-W, 2001-C, 2001-B, 2006-W, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2011-W, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B, 2017-W, 2017-W, 2017-C, 2017-B
  • Burkina Faso: 1993-W, 1993-C, 1993-B, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2003-W, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2010-W, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2010-B
  • Burundi: 1987-C, 1987-B, 1987-W, 2010-C, 2010-W, 2010-B, 2010-W, 2016-W, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B
  • Cameroon: 1991-W, 1991-C, 1991-B, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2004-W, 2004-C, 2004-B, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B
  • Chad: 1996-W, 1996-B, 1996-C, 2004-W, 2004-B, 2004-C, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B
  • Congo (Democratic Republic): 2007-C, 2007-B, 2007-W, 2013-W, 2013-C, 2013-B
  • Cote d'Ivoire: 1994-W, 1994-C, 1994-B, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B
  • Egypt: 1988-W, 1988-C, 1988-B, 1992-W, 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 1995-W, 1995-W, 1995-C, 1995-B, 2000-W, 2000-W, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2003-W, 2005-W, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2005-B, 2008-W, 2008-W, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-W, 2014-B
  • Ethiopia: 2005-W, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2005-B, 2011-W, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B, 2016-W
  • Ghana: 1988-W, 1988-C, 1988-B, 1993-W, 1993-C, 1993-B, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2003-W, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2008-W, 2008-W, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-W, 2014-B
  • Guinea: 1999-W, 1999-C, 1999-B, 2005-W, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2005-B, 2012-W, 2012-C, 2012-B, 2018-C, 2018-B, 2018-W, 2018-W
  • India: 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2005-W, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2005-B, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B, 2015-W
  • Jordan: 1990-W, 1990-C, 1990-B, 1990-W, 1997-W, 1997-C, 1997-B, 1997-W, 2002-W, 2002-C, 2002-B, 2002-W, 2007-W, 2007-C, 2007-B, 2007-W, 2009-W, 2009-C, 2009-B, 2009-W, 2012-W, 2012-C, 2012-B, 2012-W, 2017-W, 2017-W, 2017-C, 2017-B
  • Kenya: 1989-W, 1989-C, 1989-B, 1993-W, 1993-C, 1993-B, 1998-W, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2003-W, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2008-W, 2008-W, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-W, 2014-B
  • Lesotho: 2004-W, 2004-C, 2004-B, 2009-W, 2009-W, 2009-C, 2009-B, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B, 2014-W
  • Liberia: 1986-W, 1986-C, 1986-B, 2007-W, 2007-C, 2007-B, 2013-W, 2013-C, 2013-W, 2013-B
  • Madagascar: 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 1997-W, 1997-C, 1997-B, 2003-W, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2008-W, 2008-W, 2008-C, 2008-B
  • Malawi: 2004-W, 2004-W, 2004-C, 2004-B, 2010-W, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2010-B, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B, 2016-W
  • Mali: 1987-W, 1987-C, 1987-B, 1995-W, 1995-C, 1995-B, 2001-W, 2001-W, 2001-C, 2001-B, 2006-W, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2012-W, 2012-W, 2012-C, 2012-B, 2018-C, 2018-B, 2018-W, 2018-W
  • Morocco: 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-W, 1992-B, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-W, 2003-B
  • Mozambique: 1997-W, 1997-C, 1997-B, 2003-W, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2011-W, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B
  • Myanmar: 2015-C, 2015-W, 2015-B, 2015-W
  • Namibia: 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 2000-W, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2006-W, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2013-W, 2013-W, 2013-C, 2013-B
  • Nepal: 2006-W, 2006-C, 2006-W, 2006-B, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-W, 2011-B, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B, 2016-W
  • Niger: 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2006-W, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2012-W, 2012-W, 2012-C, 2012-B
  • Nigeria: 1990-W, 1990-C, 1990-B, 1999-W, 1999-C, 1999-B, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2008-W, 2008-W, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2013-W, 2013-W, 2013-C, 2013-B, 2018-C, 2018-B, 2018-W, 2018-W
  • Pakistan: 1991-W, 1991-C, 1991-B, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2012-W, 2012-C, 2012-W, 2012-B, 2017-W, 2017-W, 2017-C, 2017-B
  • Rwanda: 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 2000-W, 2000-W, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2005-B, 2005-W, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2008-W, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2010-B, 2010-W, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B, 2014-W
  • Senegal: 1986-B, 1986-W, 1986-C, 1992-B, 1992-W, 1992-C, 1997-B, 1997-W, 1997-C, 2005-B, 2005-W, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2010-B, 2010-W, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2012-B, 2012-W, 2012-W, 2012-C, 2014-B, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-W, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B, 2015-W, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B, 2016-W, 2017-W, 2017-C, 2017-B, 2017-W
  • South Africa: 1998-B, 1998-W, 1998-C, 2016-W, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B
  • Sri Lanka: 1987-W, 1987-C, 1987-B
  • Sudan: 1989-B, 1989-W, 1989-C
  • Tanzania: 1991-B, 1991-W, 1991-C, 1996-B, 1996-W, 1996-C, 1999-B, 1999-W, 1999-C, 2004-B, 2004-W, 2004-W, 2004-C, 2010-B, 2010-W, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2015-C, 2015-B
  • Tunisia: 1988-W, 1988-C, 1988-B
  • Uganda: 1988-B, 1988-W, 1988-C, 1995-B, 1995-W, 1995-C, 2001-B, 2001-W, 2001-W, 2001-C, 2006-B, 2006-W, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2011-B, 2011-W, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B, 2016-W
  • Yemen: 1991-B, 1991-W, 1991-C, 2013-B, 2013-W, 2013-C, 2013-W
  • Zambia: 1992-B, 1992-W, 1992-C, 1996-B, 1996-W, 1996-C, 2001-B, 2001-W, 2001-C, 2007-B, 2007-W, 2007-W, 2007-C, 2013-B, 2013-W, 2013-C, 2013-W, 2018-W, 2018-C, 2018-B, 2018-W
  • Zimbabwe: 1988-B, 1988-W, 1988-C, 1994-B, 1994-W, 1994-W, 1994-C, 1999-B, 1999-W, 1999-W, 1999-C, 2005-B, 2005-W, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2010-B, 2010-W, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2015-C, 2015-B