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Cause of fistula: Witchcraft

Codes and Frequencies

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FSCAUSWITCH indicates whether the woman reported witchcraft or mystical charms to be a cause of fistula, in response to an open-ended question about the causes of fistula.

When children are chosen as the unit of analysis, the woman respondent indicates the mother of the child.

Comparability — Index

Congo Brazzaville


Despite universe differences and slight differences in question wording, FSCAUSWITCH is largely comparable across samples.

Comparability - Standard DHS

FSCAUSWITCH is included in neither the standard DHS questionnaire nor in the standard version of the fistula module.

Comparability — Congo Brazzaville [top]

The 2011 Republic of the Congo - Brazzaville survey asks if witchcraft or other supernatural means is a cause of fistula.


  • Congo Brazzaville 2011: Women age 15-49 who have heard of fistula and have not experienced fistula.
  • Mali 2006: Women age 15-49 who have heard of fistula.
  • Niger 2006: Women age 15-49 who have heard of fistula.
  • Niger 2012: All women age 15-49.
  • Congo Brazzaville: 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B
  • Mali: 2006-B, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2006-W
  • Niger: 2006-W, 2006-B, 2006-C, 2006-W, 2012-W, 2012-B, 2012-C, 2012-W