Data Cart

Your data extract

0 variables
0 samples
View Cart
How fistula was contracted

Codes and Frequencies

Can't find the category you are looking for? Try the Detailed codes


For women who have experienced fistula, FSHOWGOT reports the woman's opinion of how she contracted the condition (with a single answer recorded for each respondent).

When children are chosen as the unit of analysis, the woman respondent indicates the mother of the child.


Question wording and response categories for FSHOWGOT vary considerably across samples.

To maximize comparability across samples, IPUMS-DHS uses composite coding, with broad categories sharing a common first digit (1 for place of delivery, 2 for pregnancy and delivery conditions, and 3 for other reasons) and a second digit showing detailed response categories.

Comparability - Standard DHS

The standard DHS questionnaire includes no questions about fistula. The Standard DHS Module on fistula asks whether the woman's fistula was due to delivery or other (open-ended) causes, but the details about delivery problems (e.g., place of delivery versus large child) included in FSHOWGOT were not included in the standard module.


  • Congo Brazzaville 2011: Women age 15-49 who have experienced fistula.
  • Mali 2006: Women age 15-49 who have experienced fistula.
  • Niger 2012: Women age 15-49 who have experienced fistula.
  • Congo Brazzaville: 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B
  • Mali: 2006-W, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2006-W
  • Niger: 2012-W, 2012-B, 2012-C, 2012-W