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How long ago the onset of leakage began

Codes and Frequencies

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For women who experienced fistula, FSSTARTTIME indicates whether the woman contracted fistula during the previous year or whether she contracted it 12 or more months before the interview.

When children are chosen as the unit of analysis, the woman respondent indicates the mother of the child.


FSSTARTTIME has no comparability problems.

Comparability - Standard DHS

FSSTARTTIME is in neither the standard DHS questionnaire nor the DHS standard fistula module.


  • Niger 2012: Women age 15-49 who have experienced fistula.
  • Niger: 2012-W, 2012-C, 2012-B, 2012-W