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Respondent understands French

Codes and Frequencies

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KNOWSFRENCH indicates whether the respondent understands French.


Apart from universe differences and slight differences in question wording, described below, KNOWSFRENCH is largely comparable across samples.

To maximize comparability, IPUMS-DHS uses composite coding with "Yes" responses having a first digit of "1." The second digit distinguishes between "Yes, easily" (code "11") and "Yes, with difficulty" (code "12"), when this additional information is available.

Comparability - Standard DHS

KNOWSFRENCH is a country-specific variable not included in any of the standard DHS modules.


  • Burkina Faso 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • Togo 1998: Women age 15-49 who have no education or whose highest level of education was primary school.
  • Burkina Faso: 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B
  • Togo: 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B