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LITBRIG (LITBRIG)
Literacy bridging variable
Group: Education

Codes and Frequencies



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Description

LITBRIG serves as a bridging variable between two approaches to collecting information on literacy. Initially, respondents were asked, "Can you read a letter or newspaper easily, with difficulty, or not at all?" In many countries, persons with secondary or higher levels of schooling were presumed to "read easily," but coding criteria varied across countries.

Beginning with Phase 4 of the DHS, persons with less than secondary school education were asked to demonstrate their literacy level by reading aloud a sentence on a card and were classified as "cannot read at all," "able to read only parts of sentence," and "able to read whole sentence." As before, those with secondary or higher schooling were presumed to have attained the highest literacy level.

LITBRIG combines information from the first approach of asking about literacy (in LIT1 [V108]) and the second approach of testing literacy based on reading a sentence aloud (in LIT2 [V155]).

See Comparability for more information.

Comparability

LITBRIG is a bridging variable created by IPUMS-DHS. Due to the shifts across phases in data collection, users should be attentive to the survey text for each sample, and should note the text in the Description and Comparability tabs of the source variables LIT1 (V108) and LIT2 (V155).

This bridging variable treats as equivalent the codes of "reads with difficulty" and "able to read only part of sentence"; similarly, "reads easily" and "able to read whole sentence" are treated as equivalent. Users should be aware that the method of collecting literacy information changed over time, and that the second approach of asking the respondent to read a passage may be less affected by social desirability bias.

Comparability - Standard DHS

LITBRIG is not included in the standard DHS questionnaire, but it is derived from two standard questions from phases I-III and IV-VI. See LIT1 (V108) and LIT2 (V155) for further discussion of how the standard DHS questionnaire collected data on literacy.

Universe

  • Afghanistan 2015: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Angola 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Bangladesh 1994: Ever-married women age 10-49.
  • Bangladesh 1997: Ever-married women age 10-49.
  • Bangladesh 2000: Ever-married women age 10-49.
  • Bangladesh 2004: Ever-married women age 10-49.
  • Bangladesh 2007: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Bangladesh 2011: Ever-married women age 12-49.
  • Bangladesh 2014: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Benin 1996: All women age 15-49.
  • Benin 2001: All women age 15-49.
  • Benin 2006: All women age 15-49.
  • Benin 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Benin 2017: All women age 15-49.
  • Burkina Faso 1993: All women age 15-49.
  • Burkina Faso 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • Burkina Faso 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Burkina Faso 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Burundi 1987: All women age 15-49.
  • Burundi 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Burundi 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Cameroon 1991: All women age 15-49.
  • Cameroon 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • Cameroon 2004: All women age 15-49.
  • Cameroon 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Chad 1996: All women age 15-49.
  • Chad 2004: All women age 15-49.
  • Chad 2014: All women age 15-49.
  • Congo (Democratic Republic) 2007: All women age 15-49.
  • Congo (Democratic Republic) 2013: All women age 15-49.
  • Cote d'Ivoire 1994: All women age 15-49.
  • Cote d'Ivoire 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • Cote d'Ivoire 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 1988: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 1992: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 1995: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 2000: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 2003: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 2005: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 2008: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 2014: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Ethiopia 2000: All women age 15-49.
  • Ethiopia 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • Ethiopia 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Ethiopia 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 1988: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 1993: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 2008: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 2014: All women age 15-49.
  • Guinea 1999: All women age 15-49.
  • Guinea 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • Guinea 2012: All women age 15-49.
  • Guinea 2018: All women age 15-49.
  • India 1992: Ever-married women age 13-49.
  • India 1998: Ever-married women age 15-49 whose highest education level was primary school.
  • India 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • India 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Jordan 1990: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Jordan 1997: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Jordan 2017: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Kenya 1989: All women age 15-49.
  • Kenya 1993: All women age 15-49.
  • Kenya 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • Kenya 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Kenya 2008: All women age 15-49.
  • Kenya 2014: All women age 15-49.
  • Lesotho 2004: All women age 15-49.
  • Lesotho 2009: All women age 15-49.
  • Lesotho 2014: All women age 15-49.
  • Liberia 1986: All women age 15-49.
  • Liberia 2007: All women age 15-49.
  • Liberia 2013: All women age 15-49.
  • Madagascar 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Madagascar 1997: All women age 15-49.
  • Madagascar 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Madagascar 2008: All women age 15-49.
  • Malawi 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Malawi 2000: All women age 15-49.
  • Malawi 2004: All women age 15-49.
  • Malawi 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Malawi 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Mali 1987: All women age 15-49.
  • Mali 1995: All women age 15-49.
  • Mali 2001: All women age 15-49.
  • Mali 2006: All women age 15-49.
  • Mali 2012: All women age 15-49.
  • Mali 2018: All women age 15-49.
  • Morocco 1987: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Morocco 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Morocco 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Mozambique 1997: All women age 15-49.
  • Mozambique 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Mozambique 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Myanmar 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Namibia 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Namibia 2000: All women age 15-49.
  • Namibia 2006: All women age 15-49.
  • Namibia 2013: All women age 15-64.
  • Nepal 1996: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Nepal 2001: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Nepal 2006: All women age 15-49.
  • Nepal 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Nepal 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Niger 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Niger 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • Niger 2006: All women age 15-49.
  • Niger 2012: All women age 15-49.
  • Nigeria 1990: All women age 15-49.
  • Nigeria 1999: All women age 10-49.
  • Nigeria 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Nigeria 2008: All women age 15-49.
  • Nigeria 2013: All women age 15-49.
  • Nigeria 2018: All women age 15-49.
  • Pakistan 1991: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Pakistan 2006: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Pakistan 2012: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Pakistan 2017: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Rwanda 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Rwanda 2000: All women age 15-49.
  • Rwanda 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • Rwanda 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Rwanda 2014: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 1986: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 1997: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2012: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2014: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2017: All women age 15-49.
  • South Africa 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • South Africa 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Sri Lanka 1987: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Sudan 1989: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 1991: All women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 1996: All women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 1999: All women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 2004: All women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Tunisia 1988: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Uganda 1988: All women age 15-49.
  • Uganda 1995: All women age 15-49.
  • Uganda 2001: All women age 15-49.
  • Uganda 2006: All women age 15-49.
  • Uganda 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Uganda 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Yemen 1991: Ever-married women age 15-54.
  • Yemen 2013: All women age 15-49.
  • Zambia 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Zambia 1996: All women age 15-49.
  • Zambia 2001: All women age 15-49.
  • Zambia 2007: All women age 15-49.
  • Zambia 2013: All women age 15-49.
  • Zambia 2018: All women age 15-49.
  • Zimbabwe 1988: All women age 15-49.
  • Zimbabwe 1994: All women age 15-49.
  • Zimbabwe 1999: Women age 15-49 who have no education or whose highest level of education was primary school.
  • Zimbabwe 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • Zimbabwe 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Zimbabwe 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Afghanistan: 2015-C, 2015-W, 2015-B
  • Angola: 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B
  • Bangladesh: 1994-C, 1994-B, 1994-W, 1997-C, 1997-B, 1997-W, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2000-W, 2004-C, 2004-B, 2004-W, 2007-C, 2007-B, 2007-W, 2011-C, 2011-B, 2011-W, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B
  • Benin: 1996-W, 1996-C, 1996-B, 2001-W, 2001-C, 2001-B, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B, 2017-W, 2017-C, 2017-B
  • Burkina Faso: 1993-W, 1993-C, 1993-B, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2010-B
  • Burundi: 1987-C, 1987-B, 1987-W, 2010-C, 2010-B, 2010-W, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B
  • Cameroon: 1991-W, 1991-C, 1991-B, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2004-W, 2004-C, 2004-B, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B
  • Chad: 1996-W, 1996-B, 1996-C, 2004-W, 2004-B, 2004-C, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B
  • Congo (Democratic Republic): 2007-C, 2007-B, 2007-W, 2013-W, 2013-C, 2013-B
  • Cote d'Ivoire: 1994-W, 1994-C, 1994-B, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B
  • Egypt: 1988-W, 1988-C, 1988-B, 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 1995-W, 1995-C, 1995-B, 2000-W, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2005-B, 2008-W, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B
  • Ethiopia: 2000-W, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2005-B, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B
  • Ghana: 1988-W, 1988-C, 1988-B, 1993-W, 1993-C, 1993-B, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2008-W, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B
  • Guinea: 1999-W, 1999-C, 1999-B, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2005-B, 2012-W, 2012-C, 2012-B, 2018-C, 2018-B, 2018-W
  • India: 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2005-B, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B
  • Jordan: 1990-W, 1990-C, 1990-B, 1997-W, 1997-C, 1997-B, 2017-W, 2017-C, 2017-B
  • Kenya: 1989-W, 1989-C, 1989-B, 1993-W, 1993-C, 1993-B, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2008-W, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B
  • Lesotho: 2004-W, 2004-C, 2004-B, 2009-W, 2009-C, 2009-B, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B
  • Liberia: 1986-W, 1986-C, 1986-B, 2007-W, 2007-C, 2007-B, 2013-W, 2013-C, 2013-B
  • Madagascar: 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 1997-W, 1997-C, 1997-B, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2008-W, 2008-C, 2008-B
  • Malawi: 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 2000-W, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2004-W, 2004-C, 2004-B, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2010-B, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B
  • Mali: 1987-W, 1987-C, 1987-B, 1995-W, 1995-C, 1995-B, 2001-W, 2001-C, 2001-B, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2012-W, 2012-C, 2012-B, 2018-C, 2018-B, 2018-W
  • Morocco: 1987-W, 1987-C, 1987-B, 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B
  • Mozambique: 1997-W, 1997-C, 1997-B, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B
  • Myanmar: 2015-C, 2015-W, 2015-B
  • Namibia: 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 2000-W, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2013-W, 2013-C, 2013-B
  • Nepal: 1996-W, 1996-C, 1996-B, 2001-W, 2001-C, 2001-B, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B
  • Niger: 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2012-W, 2012-C, 2012-B
  • Nigeria: 1990-W, 1990-C, 1990-B, 1999-W, 1999-C, 1999-B, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2008-W, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2013-W, 2013-C, 2013-B, 2018-C, 2018-B, 2018-W
  • Pakistan: 1991-W, 1991-C, 1991-B, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2012-W, 2012-C, 2012-B, 2017-W, 2017-C, 2017-B
  • Rwanda: 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 2000-W, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2005-B, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2010-B, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B
  • Senegal: 1986-B, 1986-W, 1986-C, 1992-B, 1992-W, 1992-C, 1997-B, 1997-W, 1997-C, 2005-B, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2010-B, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2012-B, 2012-W, 2012-C, 2014-B, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B, 2017-W, 2017-C, 2017-B
  • South Africa: 1998-B, 1998-W, 1998-C, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B
  • Sri Lanka: 1987-W, 1987-C, 1987-B
  • Sudan: 1989-B, 1989-W, 1989-C
  • Tanzania: 1991-B, 1991-W, 1991-C, 1996-B, 1996-W, 1996-C, 1999-B, 1999-W, 1999-C, 2004-B, 2004-W, 2004-C, 2010-B, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B
  • Tunisia: 1988-W, 1988-C, 1988-B
  • Uganda: 1988-B, 1988-W, 1988-C, 1995-B, 1995-W, 1995-C, 2001-B, 2001-W, 2001-C, 2006-B, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2011-B, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B
  • Yemen: 1991-B, 1991-W, 1991-C, 2013-B, 2013-W, 2013-C
  • Zambia: 1992-B, 1992-W, 1992-C, 1996-B, 1996-W, 1996-C, 2001-B, 2001-W, 2001-C, 2007-B, 2007-W, 2007-C, 2013-B, 2013-W, 2013-C, 2018-W, 2018-C, 2018-B
  • Zimbabwe: 1988-B, 1988-W, 1988-C, 1994-B, 1994-W, 1994-C, 1999-B, 1999-W, 1999-C, 2005-B, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2010-B, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B