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Language(s) can read

Codes and Frequencies

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LITLANGUAGE reports the language(s) the woman can read.


In addition to slight differences in question wording, LITLANGUAGE differs across samples in the available response categories.

To maximize comparability across samples, IPUMS-DHS uses composite coding for this variable. For example, French and Arabic responses share a common first digit of "3"; the second digit provides additional detail, if available (e.g., "French" is code "11" and "Arabic" is code "12").

Comparability - Standard DHS

LITLANGUAGE is a country-specific variable, and it is not included in any phase of the standard DHS questionnaire.


  • Chad 1996: All women age 15-49.
  • Chad 2004: All women age 15-49.
  • Chad: 1996-W, 1996-C, 1996-B, 2004-W, 2004-C, 2004-B