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Malaria spread by: Unhygienic environment

Codes and Frequencies

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MLSPREDDIRTY indicates whether, in response to an open-ended question, the respondent reported an unhygienic environment as a way to get malaria.

Comparability — Index



Apart from universe differences and differences in question wording discussed below, MLSPREDDIRTY has no comparability problems.

Comparability - Standard DHS

MLSPREDDIRTY is a country-specific variable, and it is not included in any phase of the standard DHS questionnaire.

Comparability — Mali [top]

The 2018 Mali survey words uses a broader response category, worded as "dirty water, dirty environment, dirtiness."

Further, the 2018 Mali survey asks specifically about the main cause of malaria.


  • Ghana 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Mali 2018: All women age 15-49.
  • Namibia 2006: Women age 15-49 who have heard of malaria.
  • Ghana: 2016-W, 2016-C
  • Mali: 2018-W, 2018-C, 2018-B, 2018-W
  • Namibia: 2006-B, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2006-W