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Malaria spread by: Dirty or standing water

Codes and Frequencies

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MLSPREDWAT indicates whether, in response to an open-ended question, the woman reported dirty or standing water as a way to get malaria.

Comparability — Index



Apart from slight differences in question wording, MLSPREDWAT has no comparability problems.

Comparability - Standard DHS

MLSPREDWAT is a country-specific variable, and it is not included in any phase of the standard DHS questionnaire.

Comparability — Ghana [top]

The 2016 Ghana MIS survey includes "stagnant water" as a response category.

Comparability — Rwanda [top]

The 2000 Rwanda survey includes "Dirty, standing water" as a write-in response category.


  • Ghana 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Rwanda 2000: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana: 2016-W, 2016-C
  • Rwanda: 2000-W, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2000-W