NBFEDHERB_ALL variables are 1-digit variables.
0 = No
1 = Yes
8 = Missing
9 = NIU (not in universe)
For women who gave birth in the five years before the survey, NBFEDHERB_ALL indicates whether the child was given herbs in the first three days after delivery.
NBFEDHERB_ALL consists of a set of six separate variables, covering the most recent birth (NBFEDHERB_01) up to the sixth-most-recent birth (i.e., NBFEDHERB_02, NBFEDHERB_03, NBFEDHERB_04, NBFEDHERB_05, and NBFEDHERB_06) during the reference period prior to the survey. If NBFEDHERB_ALL is included in a data extract, all these separate variables are included in a researcher's data file.
For surveys including this question, information for this variable was collected on all births, up to a maximum of six, in the reference period. In many cases, data were hypothetically collected on up to six births, but no women in the survey had so many births (e.g., no woman had 4 or more births in 3 years, or had 5 or 6 births in 5 years). If, for example, no woman in a survey had 6 births in five years and only blank values were included in the original DHS file, then NBFEDHERB_06 would not be available for that survey in IPUMS-DHS.
As detailed in the Comparability section, some surveys collected this information for the last-born children only (NBFEDHERB_01).
Comparability — Index
Along with universe differences, NBFEDHERB_ALL has some slight differences in question wording across samples, in line with the changing wording of the standard question. Specifically, some samples used the phrase "before your milk began flowing freely" as well as "in the first three days after delivery" to define the reference period. Other samples used only "the first three days after delivery" to define the reference period. In addition, the type of HERB specified (e.g., "fresh HERB" versus "ghee") is country-specific. Consult the Survey Text tab to determine the question wording for samples of interest.
Comparability - Standard DHS
NBFEDHERB_ALL is based on an open-ended question about foods given to newborns in the first three days after delivery, included in the standard DHS questionnaire for Phases IV through VI. NBFEDHERB_ALL is a country-specific response category.
In Phase IV, the standard questionnaire asks, "What was (NAME) given to drink before your milk began flowing regularly?"
In Phases V and VI, the standard questionnaires ask, "What was (NAME) given to drink?"
Comparability — Malawi [top]
The 2010 Malawi survey includes "Herbal infusion" as a response category.
The 2010 Malawi survey collected this information for the last birth only.
Comparability — Pakistan [top]
The 1991 Pakistan survey includes "Herbal water" as a write-in response category. The 2006 Pakistan survey includes "Herbs/traditional medicines" as a write-in response category.
The 1991 and 2006 Pakistan surveys collected this information for the last birth only.
- Kenya 2003: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey and ever breastfed the last-born child.
- Malawi 2010: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey and ever breastfed the last-born child.
- Pakistan 1991: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey and who breastfed the child, but who did not put the child to the breast "immediately."
- Pakistan 2006: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey and ever breastfed the last-born child.