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NBFEDNO_ALL (M55Z_X)
Liquids given before breastmilk, first 3 days: Nothing

NBFEDNO_ALL variables are 1-digit variables.

Codes

0 = No, given something
1 = Yes, given nothing
8 = Missing
9 = NIU (not in universe)

Description

For women who gave birth in the last three to five years, NBFEDNO_ALL (M55Z_x) indicates whether the child was given nothing (i.e., no supplemental fluids) to drink in the first three days after the birth. Some children may have been fed the mother's colostrum, a nourishing milky fluid that comes from the breast before true milk appears.

NBFEDNO_ALL consists of a set of six separate variables, covering the most recent birth (NBFEDNO_01) up to the sixth-most-recent birth (i.e., NBFEDNO_02, NBFEDNO_03, NBFEDNO_04, NBFEDNO_05, and NBFEDNO_06) during the reference period prior to the survey. If NBFEDNO_ALL is included in a data extract, all these separate variables are included in a researcher's data file.

For surveys including this question, information for this variable was collected on all births, up to a maximum of six, in the reference period. In many cases, data were hypothetically collected on up to six births, but no women in the survey had so many births (e.g., no woman had 4 or more births in 3 years, or had 5 or 6 births in 5 years). If, for example, no woman in a survey had 6 births in five years and only blank values were included in the original DHS file, then NBFEDNO_06 would not be available for that survey in IPUMS-DHS.

As documented in the Comparability section, many surveys collected this information for the last-born child only (NBFEDNO_01).

Comparability — Index

GENERAL
Afghanistan
Angola
Bangladesh
Benin
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Chad
Cote d'Ivoire
Egypt
Ethiopia
Ghana
Guinea
India
Jordan
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mozambique
Myanmar
Namibia
Nepal
Niger
Nigeria
Pakistan
Rwanda
Senegal
South Africa
Tanzania
Uganda
Yemen
Zambia
Zimbabwe

Comparability

Along with universe differences, NBFEDNO_ALL (M55Z_x) has a slight difference in question wording across samples, in line with the changing wording of the standard question, noted below.

Some samples used the phrase "before your milk began flowing freely" as well as "in the first three days after delivery" to define the reference period; other samples used only the latter phrase. Consult the Survey Text tab to determine question wording for samples of interest.

Comparability - Standard DHS

NBFEDNO_ALL (M55Z_x) is included in Phases IV through VI of the standard DHS questionnaire. In Phase IV, the standard question wording included the clause "before your milk began flowing regularly," but this phrase was dropped in Phase V.

Phase VII of the standard DHS questionnaire includes NBFEDANY_ALL (M55_x), which indicates whether the child was given anything other than breast milk in the first three days after delivery. To maximize comparability, IPUMS-DHS has included the inverse of the responses of NBFEDANY_ALL in NBFEDNO_ALL.

Comparability — Afghanistan [top]

The 2015 Afghanistan survey collected this information for the last-born child only.

Comparability — Angola [top]

The 2015 Angola survey collected this information for the last-born child only.

Comparability — Bangladesh [top]

The Bangladesh surveys for 1997, 2007, 2011, and 2014 collected this information for the last-born child only.

Comparability — Benin [top]

The 2011 and 2017 Benin surveys collected this information for the last-born child only. The 2001 and 2006 Benin surveys collected this information for additional births.

Comparability — Burkina Faso [top]

The 2010 Burkina Faso survey collected this information for the last-born child only. The 2003 Burkina Faso survey collected this information for additional births.

Comparability — Burundi [top]

The 2010 and 2016 Burundi surveys collected this information for the last-born child only.

Comparability — Cameroon [top]

The 2011 Cameroon survey collected this information for the last-born child only. The 2004 Cameroon survey collected this information for additional births.

Comparability — Chad [top]

The 2014 Chad survey collected this information for the last-born child only. The 2004 Chad survey collected this information for additional births.

Comparability — Cote d'Ivoire [top]

The 2011 Cote d'Ivoire survey collected this information for the last-born child only.

Comparability — Egypt [top]

The 2005, 2008, and 2014 Egyptian surveys collected this information for the last-born child only. The 2000 and 2003 Egyptian surveys collected this information for additional births.

Comparability — Ethiopia [top]

The 2005, 2011, and 2016 Ethiopian survey collected this information for the last-born child only.

Comparability — Ghana [top]

The 2008 and 2014 Ghana surveys collected this information for the last-born child only. The 2003 Ghana survey collected this information for additional births.

Comparability — Guinea [top]

The 2012 Guinea survey collected this information for the last-born child only. The 2005 Guinea survey collected this information for additional births.

Comparability — India [top]

The 2005 and 2015 Indian surveys collected this information for the last-born child only.

Comparability — Jordan [top]

The 2007, 2009, 2012, and 2017 Jordan surveys collected this information for the last-born child only. The 2002 Jordan survey collected this information for additional births.

Comparability — Kenya [top]

The 2008 and 2014 Kenya surveys collected this information for the last-born child only. The 2003 Kenya survey collected this information for additional births.

Comparability — Lesotho [top]

The 2009 and 2014 Lesotho survey collected this information for the last-born child only. The 2004 Lesotho survey collected this information for additional births.

Comparability — Liberia [top]

The 2007 and 2013 Liberia surveys collected this information for the last-born child only.

Comparability — Madagascar [top]

The 2008 Madagascar survey collected this information for the last-born child only. The 2003 Madagascar survey collected this information for additional births.

Comparability — Malawi [top]

The 2010 and 2016 Malawi surveys collected this information for the last-born child only. The 2000 and 2004 Malawi surveys collected this information for additional births.

Comparability — Mali [top]

The 2012 Mali survey collected this information for the last-born child only. The 2001 and 2006 Mali surveys collected this information for additional births.

Comparability — Mozambique [top]

The 2011 Mozambique survey collected this information for the last-born child only. The 2003 Mozambique survey collected this information for additional births.

Comparability — Myanmar [top]

The 2015 Myanmar survey collected this information for the last-born child only.

Comparability — Namibia [top]

The 2006 and 2013 Namibia surveys collected this information for the last-born child only.

Comparability — Nepal [top]

The 2006, 2011, and 2016 Nepal surveys collected this information for the last-born child only. The 2001 Nepal survey collected this information for additional births.

Comparability — Niger [top]

The 2006 and 2012 Niger surveys collected this information for the last-born child only.

Comparability — Nigeria [top]

The 2008 and 2013 Nigerian surveys collected this information for the last-born child only. The 2003 Nigerian survey collected this information for additional births.

Comparability — Pakistan [top]

The 1991, 2006, 2012, and 2017 Pakistan surveys collected this information for the last-born child only.

Comparability — Rwanda [top]

The 2005, 2008, 2010, and 2014 Rwandan surveys collected this information for the last-born child only.

Comparability — Senegal [top]

The Senegal surveys for 2010, 2012, 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017 collected this information for the last-born child only. The Senegal 2005 survey collected this information for additional births.

Comparability — South Africa [top]

The 2016 South Africa survey collected this information for the last-born child only.

Comparability — Tanzania [top]

The 2010 and 2015 Tanzanian surveys collected this information for the last-born child only. The Tanzania 2004 survey collected this information for additional births.

Comparability — Uganda [top]

The 2006, 2011, and 2016 Ugandan surveys collected this information for the last-born child only. The 2001 Uganda survey collected this information for additional births.

Comparability — Yemen [top]

The 2013 Yemen survey collected this information for the last-born child only.

Comparability — Zambia [top]

The 2007 and 2013 Zambian surveys collected this information for the last-born child only. The 2001 Zambian survey collected this information for additional births.

Comparability — Zimbabwe [top]

The 2005, 2010, and 2015 Zimbabwe surveys collected this information for the last-born child only.

Universe

  • Afghanistan 2015: Ever-married women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Angola 2015: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Bangladesh 1997: Ever-married women age 10-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Bangladesh 2007: Ever-married women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Bangladesh 2011: Ever-married women age 12-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Bangladesh 2014: Ever-married women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 3 was ever breastfed.
  • Benin 2001: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Benin 2006: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Benin 2011: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Benin 2017: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Burkina Faso 2003: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Burkina Faso 2010: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Burundi 2010: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Burundi 2016: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Cameroon 2004: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Cameroon 2011: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Chad 2004: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed but was not put to the breast "immediately" after birth.
  • Chad 2014: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Congo (Democratic Republic) 2007: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Congo (Democratic Republic) 2013: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Cote d'Ivoire 2011: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Egypt 2000: Ever-married women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Egypt 2003: Ever-married women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Egypt 2005: Ever-married women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Egypt 2008: Ever-married women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Egypt 2014: Ever-married women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Ethiopia 2005: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Ethiopia 2011: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Ethiopia 2016: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Ghana 2003: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Ghana 2008: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Ghana 2014: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Guinea 2005: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Guinea 2012: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • India 2005: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • India 2015: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Jordan 2002: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Jordan 2007: Ever-married women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Jordan 2009: Ever-married women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Jordan 2012: Ever-married women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Jordan 2017: Ever-married women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Kenya 2003: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Kenya 2008: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Kenya 2014: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed, in households selected for the long questionnaire.
  • Lesotho 2004: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Lesotho 2009: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Lesotho 2014: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Liberia 2007: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Liberia 2013: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Madagascar 2003: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Madagascar 2008: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Malawi 2000: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Malawi 2004: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Malawi 2010: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Malawi 2016: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Mali 2001: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Mali 2006: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Mali 2012: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Morocco 2003: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Mozambique 2003: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Mozambique 2011: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Myanmar 2015: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Namibia 2006: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Namibia 2013: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Nepal 2001: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Nepal 2006: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Nepal 2011: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Nepal 2016: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Niger 2006: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Niger 2012: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Nigeria 2003: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Nigeria 2008: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Nigeria 2013: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Pakistan 1991: Ever-married women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed but was not put to the breast "immediately" after birth.
  • Pakistan 2006: Ever-married women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Pakistan 2012: Ever-married women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Pakistan 2017: Ever-married women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Rwanda 2005: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Rwanda 2008: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Rwanda 2010: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Rwanda 2014: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Senegal 2005: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Senegal 2010: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Senegal 2012: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Senegal 2014: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Senegal 2015: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Senegal 2016: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Senegal 2017: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • South Africa 2016: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Tanzania 2004: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Tanzania 2010: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Tanzania 2015: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Uganda 2001: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Uganda 2006: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Uganda 2011: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Uganda 2016: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Yemen 2013: Ever-married women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Zambia 2001: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Zambia 2007: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Zambia 2013: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Zimbabwe 2005: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Zimbabwe 2010: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Zimbabwe 2015: Women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 was ever breastfed.
  • Afghanistan: 2015-W
  • Angola: 2015-W
  • Bangladesh: 1997-W, 2007-W, 2011-W, 2014-W
  • Benin: 2001-W, 2006-W, 2011-W, 2017-W
  • Burkina Faso: 2003-W, 2010-W
  • Burundi: 2010-W, 2016-W
  • Cameroon: 2004-W, 2011-W
  • Chad: 2004-W, 2014-W
  • Congo (Democratic Republic): 2007-W, 2013-W
  • Cote d'Ivoire: 2011-W
  • Egypt: 2000-W, 2003-W, 2005-W, 2008-W, 2014-W
  • Ethiopia: 2005-W, 2011-W, 2016-W
  • Ghana: 2003-W, 2008-W, 2014-W
  • Guinea: 2005-W, 2012-W
  • India: 2005-W, 2015-W
  • Jordan: 2002-W, 2007-W, 2009-W, 2012-W, 2017-W
  • Kenya: 2003-W, 2008-W, 2014-W
  • Lesotho: 2004-W, 2009-W, 2014-W
  • Liberia: 2007-W, 2013-W
  • Madagascar: 2003-W, 2008-W
  • Malawi: 2000-W, 2004-W, 2010-W, 2016-W
  • Mali: 2001-W, 2006-W, 2012-W
  • Morocco: 2003-W
  • Mozambique: 2003-W, 2011-W
  • Myanmar: 2015-W
  • Namibia: 2006-W, 2013-W
  • Nepal: 2001-W, 2006-W, 2011-W, 2016-W
  • Niger: 2006-W, 2012-W
  • Nigeria: 2003-W, 2008-W, 2013-W
  • Pakistan: 1991-W, 2006-W, 2012-W, 2017-W
  • Rwanda: 2005-W, 2008-W, 2010-W, 2014-W
  • Senegal: 2005-W, 2010-W, 2012-W, 2014-W, 2015-W, 2016-W, 2017-W
  • South Africa: 2016-W
  • Tanzania: 2004-W, 2010-W, 2015-W
  • Uganda: 2001-W, 2006-W, 2011-W, 2016-W
  • Yemen: 2013-W
  • Zambia: 2001-W, 2007-W, 2013-W
  • Zimbabwe: 2005-W, 2010-W, 2015-W