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NDRINKWTR (HV202)
Major source of non-drinking water

Codes and Frequencies



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Description

NDRINKWTR (HV202) reports the household's main source of water for uses other than drinking (for example, cooking and washing). Responses vary widely across surveys; see Comparability.

The information in NDRINKWTR is taken from the household record and applies to regular household residents, not temporary visitors. Researchers may wish to exclude visitors using the RESIDENT variable when women, children, or births are the unit of analysis, and using the HHRESIDENT variable when household members are the unit of analysis.

Comparability

Along with universe differences, NDRINKWTR's (HV202) response categories and, indeed, the organizing principal(s) for those response categories vary across samples. To maximize comparability across samples to the extent possible, IPUMS-DHS uses composite coding and a 4-digit coding system.

The first digit of NDRINKWTR broadly distinguishes between sources of water: 1) piped, 2) well, 3) surface water, 4) rainwater, and 5) purchased from supplier.

The second digit distinguishes broad subcategories within these initial groupings. For example, for piped water, the second digit distinguishes between water that is piped into the household's own dwelling/yard/plot, and water that is piped to somewhere else. For well water, the second digit distinguishes between unprotected/open wells, protected/covered wells, and unspecified wells (whose open or protected status is unclear).

The third and fourth digits of NDRINKWTR provide further detail within categories, with information only occasionally available. For example, well water = 2000; unprotected open well = 2100; open well in own dwelling/yard/plot = 2110; open well in own dwelling = 2111.

Various dimensions of water supply are relevant to researchers. For example, water that is piped into a public tap rather than into the dwelling requires time and labor to carry cooking or washing water back to the household. Uncovered/open wells are more likely to convey disease, such as infant diarrhea, than covered/protected wells. Only the broadest (first digit) categories are available across all, or nearly all, samples; whether the source of non-piped water is covered or uncovered is often only specified for surveys fielded since 2000.

Comparability - Standard DHS

NDRINKWTR (HV202) is a standard recode variable in DHS data for Phase 1 forward. The recode manuals state that "individual codes are country specific, but the major categories are standard." These standard major categories refer to the broad groups identified in the first digit of the IPUMS-DHS codes for NDRINKWTR.

Universe

  • Angola 2015: Women age 15-49 in households that use bottled water for drinking.
  • Bangladesh 1994: Ever-married women age 10-49.
  • Bangladesh 1997: Ever-married women age 10-49.
  • Bangladesh 2000: Ever-married women age 10-49.
  • Bangladesh 2007: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Benin 2017: Women age 15-49 in households that use bottled water or sachet water for drinking.
  • Burkina Faso 1993: All women age 15-49.
  • Burundi 1987: All women age 15-49.
  • Burundi 2016: Women age 15-49 in households that use bottled water for drinking.
  • Cameroon 1991: All women age 15-49.
  • Cameroon 2011: Women age 15-49 in households that use bottled water for drinking.
  • Chad 2014: Women age 15-49 in households that use bottled water for drinking.
  • Cote d'Ivoire 1994: All women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 1988: Ever-married women age 15-49 in households that use a different water source for non-drinking water than for drinking water.
  • Egypt 1992: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 2005: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 2008: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Ethiopia 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Ethiopia 2016: Women age 15-49 in households that use bottled water for drinking.
  • Ghana 1993: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 2008: All women age 15-49.
  • Guinea 2018: Women age 15-49 in households that use bottled water for drinking.
  • India 1992: Ever-married women age 13-49.
  • India 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • Jordan 2017: Ever-married women age 15-49 in households that use bottled water for drinking.
  • Kenya 1993: All women age 15-49.
  • Kenya 2008: All women age 15-49.
  • Lesotho 2009: All women age 15-49.
  • Liberia 2007: All women age 15-49.
  • Madagascar 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Madagascar 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Madagascar 2008: All women age 15-49.
  • Malawi 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Malawi 2016: Women age 15-49 in households that use bottled water for drinking.
  • Mali 2018: Women age 15-49 in households that use bottled water or sachet water for drinking.
  • Morocco 1987: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Morocco 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Namibia 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Namibia 2006: All women age 15-49.
  • Nepal 2006: All women age 15-49.
  • Nepal 2016: Women age 15-49 in households that use bottled water for drinking.
  • Niger 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Nigeria 2008: All women age 15-49.
  • Nigeria 2018: Women age 15-49 in households that use bottled water or sachet water for drinking.
  • Pakistan 1991: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Pakistan 2017: Ever-married women age 15-49 in households that use bottled water for drinking.
  • Rwanda 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 1997: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2016: Women age 15-49 in households that use bottled water or a public tap/standpipe for drinking.
  • Senegal 2017: Women age 15-49 in households that use bottled water for drinking.
  • South Africa 2016: Women age 15-49 in households that use bottled water for drinking.
  • Sri Lanka 1987: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 1991: All women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 2015: Women age 15-49 in households that use bottled water for drinking.
  • Uganda 2006: All women age 15-49.
  • Uganda 2016: Women age 15-49 in households that use bottled water or sachet water for drinking.
  • Zambia 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Zambia 2007: All women age 15-49.
  • Zambia 2018: Women age 15-49 who were members of households that use bottled water for drinking.
  • Zimbabwe 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • Zimbabwe 2015: Women age 15-49 in households that use bottled water for drinking.
  • Angola: 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B, 2015-M, 2015-H
  • Bangladesh: 1994-H, 1994-C, 1994-M, 1994-B, 1994-W, 1997-H, 1997-C, 1997-M, 1997-B, 1997-W, 2000-H, 2000-C, 2000-M, 2000-B, 2000-W, 2007-H, 2007-C, 2007-M, 2007-B, 2007-W
  • Benin: 2017-W, 2017-C, 2017-B, 2017-M, 2017-H
  • Burkina Faso: 1993-W, 1993-M, 1993-C, 1993-B, 1993-H
  • Burundi: 1987-C, 1987-B, 1987-W, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B, 2016-M, 2016-H
  • Cameroon: 1991-W, 1991-M, 1991-C, 1991-B, 1991-H, 2011-M, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B, 2011-H
  • Chad: 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B, 2014-M, 2014-H
  • Cote d'Ivoire: 1994-M, 1994-W, 1994-C, 1994-B, 1994-H
  • Egypt: 1988-W, 1988-C, 1988-B, 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 1992-H, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2005-B, 2005-H, 2008-W, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2008-H
  • Ethiopia: 2011-W, 2011-M, 2011-C, 2011-B, 2011-H, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B, 2016-M, 2016-H
  • Ghana: 1993-W, 1993-M, 1993-C, 1993-B, 1993-H, 1998-W, 1998-H, 1998-M, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2008-W, 2008-M, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2008-H
  • Guinea: 2018-C, 2018-B, 2018-M, 2018-H, 2018-W
  • India: 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 1992-H, 2005-W, 2005-M, 2005-C, 2005-B, 2005-H
  • Jordan: 2017-W, 2017-C, 2017-B, 2017-M, 2017-H
  • Kenya: 1993-W, 1993-M, 1993-C, 1993-B, 1993-H, 2008-W, 2008-M, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2008-H
  • Lesotho: 2009-W, 2009-M, 2009-H, 2009-C, 2009-B
  • Liberia: 2007-W, 2007-C, 2007-M, 2007-H, 2007-B
  • Madagascar: 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 1992-H, 2003-W, 2003-M, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2003-H, 2008-W, 2008-M, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2008-H
  • Malawi: 1992-W, 1992-M, 1992-C, 1992-B, 1992-H, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B, 2016-M, 2016-H
  • Mali: 2018-C, 2018-B, 2018-M, 2018-H, 2018-W
  • Morocco: 1987-W, 1987-C, 1987-B, 1992-H, 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B
  • Namibia: 1992-W, 1992-H, 1992-C, 1992-B, 2006-W, 2006-M, 2006-H, 2006-C, 2006-B
  • Nepal: 2006-W, 2006-C, 2006-H, 2006-M, 2006-B, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B, 2016-M, 2016-H
  • Niger: 1992-W, 1992-M, 1992-C, 1992-B, 1992-H
  • Nigeria: 2008-W, 2008-M, 2008-C, 2008-H, 2008-B, 2018-C, 2018-B, 2018-M, 2018-H, 2018-W
  • Pakistan: 1991-W, 1991-H, 1991-C, 1991-M, 1991-B, 2017-W, 2017-C, 2017-B, 2017-M, 2017-H
  • Rwanda: 1992-W, 1992-M, 1992-C, 1992-H, 1992-B
  • Senegal: 1992-B, 1992-M, 1992-H, 1992-W, 1992-C, 1997-B, 1997-M, 1997-H, 1997-W, 1997-C, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B, 2016-M, 2016-H, 2017-W, 2017-C, 2017-B, 2017-M, 2017-H
  • South Africa: 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B, 2016-M, 2016-H
  • Sri Lanka: 1987-W, 1987-C, 1987-B
  • Tanzania: 1991-B, 1991-W, 1991-M, 1991-C, 1991-H, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B, 2015-M, 2015-H
  • Uganda: 2006-B, 2006-W, 2006-M, 2006-C, 2006-H, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B, 2016-M, 2016-H
  • Zambia: 1992-B, 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-H, 2007-B, 2007-W, 2007-M, 2007-C, 2007-H, 2018-W, 2018-C, 2018-B, 2018-M, 2018-H
  • Zimbabwe: 2005-H, 2005-B, 2005-W, 2005-M, 2005-C, 2015-H, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B, 2015-M