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PPABMO_ALL (M8_X)
Duration of postpartum abstinence (in months)

PPABMO_ALL variables are 2-digit variables.

See PPABMO_01 for the relevant codes.

Description

For women who gave birth in the last three to five years, PPABMO_ALL (M8_x) indicates the duration, in months, of postpartum abstinence. Women who were still abstaining at the time of interview were excluded from PPABMO_ALL, but they are included in the similar variable PPABMOC_ALL.

According to the DHS Recode Manuals, the maximum period allowed during the data editing was the interval between the date of birth of the child and the date of conception of the following child (with date of birth minus nine months used for the date of conception) or until the date of interview if there was no following birth. Cases exceeding this duration were left with the original response, but are coded with one of the flag codes on PPABFLAG_ALL and are coded as "Inconsistent" on PPABMOC_ALL.

PPABMO_ALL consists of a set of six separate variables, covering the most recent birth (PPABMO_01) up to the sixth-most-recent birth (i.e., PPABMO_02, PPABMO_03, PPABMO_04, PPABMO_05, and PPABMO_06) during the reference period prior to the survey. If PPABMO_ALL is included in a data extract, all these separate variables are included in a researcher's data file.

For surveys including this question, information for this variable was collected on all births, up to a maximum of six, in the reference period. In many cases, data were hypothetically collected on up to six births, but no women in the survey had so many births (e.g., no woman had 4 or more births in 3 years, or had 5 or 6 births in 5 years). If, for example, no woman in a survey had 6 births in five years and only blank values were included in the original DHS file, then PPABMO_06 would not be available for that survey in IPUMS-DHS.

Comparability

Comparability - General

Apart from universe differences and slight differences in question wording, PPABMO_ALL (M8_x) has no comparability problems.

Comparability - Standard DHS

PPABMO_ALL is included across all phases of the standard DHS questionnaire.

Universe

  • Afghanistan 2015: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Angola 2015: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Bangladesh 1994: Ever-married women age 10-49 who gave birth in the 3 years before the survey.
  • Bangladesh 1997: Ever-married women age 10-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Bangladesh 2000: Ever-married women age 10-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Bangladesh 2004: Ever-married women age 10-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Bangladesh 2007: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Bangladesh 2011: Ever-married women age 12-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Bangladesh 2014: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 3 years before the survey.
  • Benin 1996: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 3 years before the survey.
  • Benin 2001: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Benin 2006: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Benin 2011: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Burkina Faso 1993: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Burkina Faso 1998: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Burkina Faso 2003: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Burkina Faso 2010: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Burundi 1987: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Burundi 2010: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Burundi 2016: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Cameroon 1991: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Cameroon 1998: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 3 years before the survey.
  • Cameroon 2004: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Cameroon 2011: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Congo (Democratic Republic) 2007: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Congo (Democratic Republic) 2013: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Cote d'Ivoire 1994: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 3 years before the survey.
  • Cote d'Ivoire 1998: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Cote d'Ivoire 2011: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Egypt 1988: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Egypt 1992: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Egypt 1995: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Egypt 2000: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Egypt 2005: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Egypt 2008: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Egypt 2014: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Ethiopia 2000: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Ethiopia 2005: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Ethiopia 2011: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Ethiopia 2016: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Ghana 1988: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Ghana 1993: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 3 years before the survey.
  • Ghana 1998: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Ghana 2003: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Ghana 2008: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Ghana 2014: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Guinea 1999: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Guinea 2005: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Guinea 2012: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • India 1992: Ever-married women age 13-49 who gave birth in the 4 years before the survey.
  • India 1998: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 3 years before the survey.
  • India 2005: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • India 2015: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Jordan 1990: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Jordan 1997: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Jordan 2002: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Jordan 2007: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Jordan 2009: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Jordan 2012: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Jordan 2017: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Kenya 1989: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Kenya 1993: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Kenya 1998: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 3 years before the survey.
  • Kenya 2003: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Kenya 2008: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Kenya 2014: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Lesotho 2004: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Lesotho 2009: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Lesotho 2014: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Madagascar 1992: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Madagascar 1997: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 3 years before the survey.
  • Madagascar 2003: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Madagascar 2008: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Malawi 2000: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Malawi 2004: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Malawi 2010: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Malawi 2016: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Mali 1987: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Mali 1995: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 3 years before the survey.
  • Mali 2001: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Mali 2006: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Mali 2012: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Morocco 1992: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Morocco 2003: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Mozambique 1997: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 3 years before the survey.
  • Mozambique 2003: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Mozambique 2011: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Myanmar 2015: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Namibia 1992: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Namibia 2000: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Namibia 2006: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Namibia 2013: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Nepal 1996: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 3 years before the survey.
  • Nepal 2001: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Nepal 2006: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Nepal 2011: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Nepal 2016: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Niger 1992: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Niger 1998: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 3 years before the survey.
  • Niger 2006: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Niger 2012: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Nigeria 1990: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Nigeria 1999: Women age 10-49 who gave birth in the 3 years before the survey.
  • Nigeria 2003: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Nigeria 2008: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Nigeria 2013: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Pakistan 1991: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Pakistan 2006: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Pakistan 2012: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Pakistan 2017: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Rwanda 1992: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Rwanda 2000: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Rwanda 2005: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Rwanda 2010: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Rwanda 2014: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Senegal 1986: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Senegal 1992: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Senegal 1997: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Senegal 2005: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Senegal 2010: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Senegal 2012: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Senegal 2014: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Senegal 2015: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Senegal 2016: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Senegal 2017: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • South Africa 1998: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • South Africa 2016: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Sudan 1989: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Tanzania 1991: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Tanzania 1996: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Tanzania 1999: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Tanzania 2004: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Tanzania 2010: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Tanzania 2015: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Tunisia 1988: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Uganda 1995: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 4 years before the survey.
  • Uganda 2001: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Uganda 2006: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Uganda 2011: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Uganda 2016: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Zambia 1992: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Zambia 1996: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Zambia 2001: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Zambia 2007: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Zambia 2013: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Zimbabwe 1988: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Zimbabwe 1994: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 3 years before the survey.
  • Zimbabwe 1999: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Zimbabwe 2005: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Zimbabwe 2010: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Zimbabwe 2015: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Afghanistan: 2015-W
  • Angola: 2015-W
  • Bangladesh: 1994-W, 1997-W, 2000-W, 2004-W, 2007-W, 2011-W, 2014-W
  • Benin: 1996-W, 2001-W, 2006-W, 2011-W
  • Burkina Faso: 1993-W, 1998-W, 2003-W, 2010-W
  • Burundi: 1987-W, 2010-W, 2016-W
  • Cameroon: 1991-W, 1998-W, 2004-W, 2011-W
  • Congo (Democratic Republic): 2007-W, 2013-W
  • Cote d'Ivoire: 1994-W, 1998-W, 2011-W
  • Egypt: 1988-W, 1992-W, 1995-W, 2000-W, 2005-W, 2008-W, 2014-W
  • Ethiopia: 2000-W, 2005-W, 2011-W, 2016-W
  • Ghana: 1988-W, 1993-W, 1998-W, 2003-W, 2008-W, 2014-W
  • Guinea: 1999-W, 2005-W, 2012-W
  • India: 1992-W, 1998-W, 2005-W, 2015-W
  • Jordan: 1990-W, 1997-W, 2002-W, 2007-W, 2009-W, 2012-W, 2017-W
  • Kenya: 1989-W, 1993-W, 1998-W, 2003-W, 2008-W, 2014-W
  • Lesotho: 2004-W, 2009-W, 2014-W
  • Madagascar: 1992-W, 1997-W, 2003-W, 2008-W
  • Malawi: 2000-W, 2004-W, 2010-W, 2016-W
  • Mali: 1987-W, 1995-W, 2001-W, 2006-W, 2012-W
  • Morocco: 1992-W, 2003-W
  • Mozambique: 1997-W, 2003-W, 2011-W
  • Myanmar: 2015-W
  • Namibia: 1992-W, 2000-W, 2006-W, 2013-W
  • Nepal: 1996-W, 2001-W, 2006-W, 2011-W, 2016-W
  • Niger: 1992-W, 1998-W, 2006-W, 2012-W
  • Nigeria: 1990-W, 1999-W, 2003-W, 2008-W, 2013-W
  • Pakistan: 1991-W, 2006-W, 2012-W, 2017-W
  • Rwanda: 1992-W, 2000-W, 2005-W, 2010-W, 2014-W
  • Senegal: 1986-W, 1992-W, 1997-W, 2005-W, 2010-W, 2012-W, 2014-W, 2015-W, 2016-W, 2017-W
  • South Africa: 1998-W, 2016-W
  • Sudan: 1989-W
  • Tanzania: 1991-W, 1996-W, 1999-W, 2004-W, 2010-W, 2015-W
  • Tunisia: 1988-W
  • Uganda: 1995-W, 2001-W, 2006-W, 2011-W, 2016-W
  • Zambia: 1992-W, 1996-W, 2001-W, 2007-W, 2013-W
  • Zimbabwe: 1988-W, 1994-W, 1999-W, 2005-W, 2010-W, 2015-W