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TOILETTYPE (HV205)
Type of toilet facility

Codes and Frequencies



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Description

TOILETTYPE (HV205) reports the household's type of toilet facility, with no facility coded "0." Responses vary widely across surveys; see Comparability.

The information in TOILETTYPE is taken from the household record and applies to regular household residents, not temporary visitors. Researchers may wish to exclude visitors using the RESIDENT variable when women, children, or births are the unit of analysis, and using the HHRESIDENT variable when household members are the unit of analysis.

Comparability — Index

GENERAL
Angola
Bangladesh

Comparability

Along with universe differences, TOILETTYPE's (HV205) response categories vary widely across samples. To maximize comparability across samples to the extent possible, IPUMS-DHS uses composite coding and a 4-digit coding system.

The first digit of TOILETYPE broadly distinguishes between kinds of toilet facilities: 0) none, 1) flush toilet, 2) non-flushing toilet, 3) pit toilet/latrine, and 4) unimproved.

The second digit distinguishes broad subcategories within these initial groupings, while the third and fourth digits provide additional detail. For example, for flush toilet (with a first digit of "1"), a code of "1200" indicates a modern flush toilet, and the further detail in code "1210" indicates waste disposal into a piped sewer system.

Different surveys address different dimensions of toilet access that may be relevant to researchers. For example, some samples' responses distinguish between shared facilities and facilities that are exclusive to the household. Other distinctions depend upon improvements designed to protect public health. For example, among pit latrines (based on defecation into a dug hole), ventilated and improved pit latrines include a vent pipe that draws away and traps odors and disease-carrying flies. Still other samples focus on sewage disposal--for example, does the toilet flush into a piped sewer system, a septic tank, or a pit latrine? The more recent (post-2000) surveys tend to include the greatest detail, particularly on whether pit latrines are "traditional" (unimproved) or ventilated and improved, and on sewage disposal for flush toilet systems.

Comparability - Standard DHS

TOILETTYPE (HV205) is a standard recode variable in DHS data for Phase 1 forward. The recode manuals state that "individual codes are country specific, but the major categories are standard." These standard major categories refer to the broad groups identified in the first digit of the IPUMS-DHS codes for TOILETTYPE.

Comparability — Angola [top]

The 2015 Angola survey broke down responses along three dimensions: broad type of toilet (e.g., flush toilet versus latrine); sewage disposal location (e.g., septic tank versus open pit or ditch); and location of toilet (indoors, inside yard, or outside household plot). These multiple categories differ from those used in most DHS surveys; accordingly, some detail is lost for Angola 2015 when the material is fit into the harmonized TOILETTYPE variable. Full detail on toilet facilities for Angola is included in the country-specific variable TOILETAO2015.

Comparability — Bangladesh [top]

The 1994 Bangladesh survey asks "Where do adult women in your household usually defecate?"

Universe

  • Afghanistan 2015: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Angola 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Bangladesh 1994: Ever-married women age 10-49.
  • Bangladesh 1997: Ever-married women age 10-49.
  • Bangladesh 2000: Ever-married women age 10-49.
  • Bangladesh 2004: Ever-married women age 10-49.
  • Bangladesh 2007: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Bangladesh 2011: Ever-married women age 12-49.
  • Bangladesh 2014: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Benin 1996: All women age 15-49.
  • Benin 2001: All women age 15-49.
  • Benin 2006: All women age 15-49.
  • Benin 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Burkina Faso 1993: All women age 15-49.
  • Burkina Faso 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • Burkina Faso 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Burkina Faso 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Burundi 1987: All women age 15-49.
  • Burundi 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Burundi 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Cameroon 1991: All women age 15-49.
  • Cameroon 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • Cameroon 2004: All women age 15-49.
  • Cameroon 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Congo (Democratic Republic) 2007: All women age 15-49.
  • Congo (Democratic Republic) 2013: All women age 15-49.
  • Cote d'Ivoire 1994: All women age 15-49.
  • Cote d'Ivoire 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • Cote d'Ivoire 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 1988: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 1992: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 1995: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 2000: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 2005: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 2008: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 2014: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Ethiopia 2000: All women age 15-49.
  • Ethiopia 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • Ethiopia 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Ethiopia 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 1988: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 1993: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 2008: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 2014: All women age 15-49.
  • Guinea 1999: All women age 15-49.
  • Guinea 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • Guinea 2012: All women age 15-49.
  • India 1992: Ever-married women age 13-49.
  • India 1998: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • India 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • India 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Kenya 1993: All women age 15-49.
  • Kenya 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • Kenya 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Kenya 2008: All women age 15-49.
  • Kenya 2014: All women age 15-49.
  • Lesotho 2004: All women age 15-49.
  • Lesotho 2009: All women age 15-49.
  • Lesotho 2014: All women age 15-49.
  • Madagascar 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Madagascar 1997: All women age 15-49.
  • Madagascar 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Madagascar 2008: All women age 15-49.
  • Malawi 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Malawi 2000: All women age 15-49.
  • Malawi 2004: All women age 15-49.
  • Malawi 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Malawi 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Mali 1987: All women age 15-49.
  • Mali 1995: All women age 15-49.
  • Mali 2001: All women age 15-49.
  • Mali 2006: All women age 15-49.
  • Mali 2012: All women age 15-49.
  • Model 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Morocco 1987: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Morocco 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Morocco 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Mozambique 1997: All women age 15-49.
  • Mozambique 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Mozambique 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Myanmar 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Namibia 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Namibia 2000: All women age 15-49.
  • Namibia 2006: All women age 15-49.
  • Namibia 2013: All women age 15-64.
  • Niger 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Niger 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • Niger 2006: All women age 15-49.
  • Niger 2012: All women age 15-49.
  • Nigeria 1990: All women age 15-49.
  • Nigeria 1999: All women age 10-49.
  • Nigeria 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Nigeria 2008: All women age 15-49.
  • Nigeria 2013: All women age 15-49.
  • Pakistan 1991: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Pakistan 2006: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Pakistan 2012: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Rwanda 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Rwanda 2000: All women age 15-49.
  • Rwanda 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • Rwanda 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Rwanda 2014: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 1986: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 1997: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2012: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2014: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2017: All women age 15-49.
  • Sudan 1989: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 1991: All women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 1996: All women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 1999: All women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 2004: All women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Tunisia 1988: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Uganda 1988: All women age 15-49.
  • Uganda 1995: All women age 15-49.
  • Uganda 2001: All women age 15-49.
  • Uganda 2006: All women age 15-49.
  • Uganda 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Uganda 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Yemen 1991: Ever-married women age 15-54.
  • Yemen 2013: All women age 15-49.
  • Zambia 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Zambia 1996: All women age 15-49.
  • Zambia 2001: All women age 15-49.
  • Zambia 2007: All women age 15-49.
  • Zambia 2013: All women age 15-49.
  • Zimbabwe 1988: All women age 15-49.
  • Zimbabwe 1994: All women age 15-49.
  • Zimbabwe 1999: All women age 15-49.
  • Zimbabwe 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • Zimbabwe 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Zimbabwe 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Afghanistan: 2015-C, 2015-W, 2015-B, 2015-H
  • Angola: 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B, 2015-H
  • Bangladesh: 1994-H, 1994-C, 1994-B, 1994-W, 1997-H, 1997-C, 1997-B, 1997-W, 2000-H, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2000-W, 2004-H, 2004-C, 2004-B, 2004-W, 2007-H, 2007-C, 2007-B, 2007-W, 2011-H, 2011-C, 2011-B, 2011-W, 2014-H, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B
  • Benin: 1996-W, 1996-C, 1996-B, 1996-H, 2001-W, 2001-C, 2001-B, 2001-H, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2006-H, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B, 2011-H
  • Burkina Faso: 1993-W, 1993-C, 1993-B, 1993-H, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 1998-H, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2003-H, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2010-B, 2010-H
  • Burundi: 1987-C, 1987-B, 1987-W, 2010-C, 2010-B, 2010-H, 2010-W, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B, 2016-H
  • Cameroon: 1991-W, 1991-C, 1991-B, 1991-H, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 1998-H, 2004-W, 2004-C, 2004-B, 2004-H, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B, 2011-H
  • Congo (Democratic Republic): 2007-H, 2007-C, 2007-B, 2007-W, 2013-W, 2013-H, 2013-C, 2013-B
  • Cote d'Ivoire: 1994-W, 1994-C, 1994-B, 1994-H, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 1998-H, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B, 2011-H
  • Egypt: 1988-W, 1988-C, 1988-B, 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 1992-H, 1995-W, 1995-C, 1995-B, 1995-H, 2000-W, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2000-H, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2005-B, 2005-H, 2008-W, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2008-H, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B, 2014-H
  • Ethiopia: 2000-W, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2000-H, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2005-B, 2005-H, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B, 2011-H, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B, 2016-H
  • Ghana: 1988-W, 1988-C, 1988-B, 1993-W, 1993-C, 1993-B, 1993-H, 1998-W, 1998-H, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2003-H, 2008-W, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2008-H, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B, 2014-H
  • Guinea: 1999-W, 1999-C, 1999-B, 1999-H, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2005-B, 2005-H, 2012-W, 2012-C, 2012-B, 2012-H
  • India: 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 1992-H, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 1998-H, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2005-B, 2005-H, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B, 2015-H
  • Kenya: 1993-W, 1993-C, 1993-B, 1993-H, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 1998-H, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2003-H, 2008-W, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2008-H, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B, 2014-H
  • Lesotho: 2004-W, 2004-H, 2004-C, 2004-B, 2009-W, 2009-H, 2009-C, 2009-B, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B, 2014-H
  • Madagascar: 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 1992-H, 1997-W, 1997-C, 1997-B, 1997-H, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2003-H, 2008-W, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2008-H
  • Malawi: 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 1992-H, 2000-W, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2000-H, 2004-W, 2004-C, 2004-B, 2004-H, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2010-B, 2010-H, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B, 2016-H
  • Mali: 1987-W, 1987-C, 1987-B, 1995-W, 1995-C, 1995-B, 1995-H, 2001-W, 2001-C, 2001-B, 2001-H, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2006-H, 2012-W, 2012-C, 2012-B, 2012-H
  • Model: 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B, 2015-H
  • Morocco: 1987-W, 1987-C, 1987-B, 1992-H, 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 2003-H, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B
  • Mozambique: 1997-W, 1997-C, 1997-B, 1997-H, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2003-H, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B, 2011-H
  • Myanmar: 2015-C, 2015-W, 2015-B, 2015-H
  • Namibia: 1992-W, 1992-H, 1992-C, 1992-B, 2000-W, 2000-H, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2006-W, 2006-H, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2013-W, 2013-H, 2013-C, 2013-B
  • Niger: 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 1992-H, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 1998-H, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2006-H, 2012-W, 2012-C, 2012-B, 2012-H
  • Nigeria: 1990-W, 1990-C, 1990-B, 1999-H, 1999-W, 1999-C, 1999-B, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-H, 2003-B, 2008-W, 2008-C, 2008-H, 2008-B, 2013-W, 2013-C, 2013-H, 2013-B
  • Pakistan: 1991-W, 1991-H, 1991-C, 1991-B, 2006-W, 2006-H, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2012-W, 2012-H, 2012-C, 2012-B
  • Rwanda: 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-H, 1992-B, 2000-W, 2000-C, 2000-H, 2000-B, 2005-B, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2005-H, 2010-B, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2010-H, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B, 2014-H
  • Senegal: 1986-B, 1986-W, 1986-C, 1992-B, 1992-H, 1992-W, 1992-C, 1997-B, 1997-H, 1997-W, 1997-C, 2005-B, 2005-H, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2010-B, 2010-H, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2012-B, 2012-H, 2012-W, 2012-C, 2014-B, 2014-W, 2014-H, 2014-C, 2015-H, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B, 2016-H, 2017-W, 2017-C, 2017-B, 2017-H
  • Sudan: 1989-B, 1989-W, 1989-C
  • Tanzania: 1991-B, 1991-W, 1991-C, 1991-H, 1996-B, 1996-W, 1996-C, 1996-H, 1999-B, 1999-W, 1999-C, 1999-H, 2004-B, 2004-W, 2004-C, 2004-H, 2010-B, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2010-H, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B, 2015-H
  • Tunisia: 1988-W, 1988-C, 1988-B
  • Uganda: 1988-B, 1988-W, 1988-C, 1995-B, 1995-W, 1995-C, 1995-H, 2001-B, 2001-W, 2001-C, 2001-H, 2006-B, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2006-H, 2011-B, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-H, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B, 2016-H
  • Yemen: 1991-B, 1991-W, 1991-H, 1991-C, 2013-B, 2013-W, 2013-H, 2013-C
  • Zambia: 1992-B, 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-H, 1996-B, 1996-W, 1996-C, 1996-H, 2001-B, 2001-W, 2001-C, 2001-H, 2007-B, 2007-W, 2007-C, 2007-H, 2013-B, 2013-W, 2013-C, 2013-H
  • Zimbabwe: 1988-B, 1988-W, 1988-C, 1994-H, 1994-B, 1994-W, 1994-C, 1999-H, 1999-B, 1999-W, 1999-C, 2005-H, 2005-B, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2010-H, 2010-B, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2015-H, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B