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WALL (HV214)
Main material of outside walls of dwelling
Group: Housing

Codes and Frequencies



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Description

WALL (HV214) reports the main material of the outside walls of the dwelling. Response categories vary widely across surveys but fall into broad groups (i.e., natural materials, rudimentary processed materials, and finished materials). See Comparability.

Comparability

Along with universe differences, the response categories for WALL (HV214) vary across surveys. To accommodate this variation, IPUMS-DHS uses composite coding, where the first digit broadly distinguishes between natural materials (code 1), rudimentary processed materials (code 2), and finished materials (code 3). The second digit within these broad categories identifies a general subcategory (e.g., earth/mud/dirt/dung), and the third digit retains detail present in only some samples (e.g., mud and dung).

The information in WALL is taken from the household record and applies to regular household residents, not temporary visitors. Researchers may wish to exclude visitors using the RESIDENT variable when women, children, or births are the unit of analysis, and using the HHRESIDENT variable when household members are the unit of analysis.

Comparability - Standard DHS

WALL (HV214) is included in the Standard DHS household questionnaire beginning in phase 5.

Universe

  • Afghanistan 2015: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Angola 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Bangladesh 1994: Ever-married women age 10-49.
  • Bangladesh 1997: Ever-married women age 10-49.
  • Bangladesh 2000: Ever-married women age 10-49.
  • Bangladesh 2004: Ever-married women age 10-49.
  • Bangladesh 2007: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Bangladesh 2011: Ever-married women age 12-49.
  • Bangladesh 2014: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Benin 1996: All women age 15-49.
  • Benin 2001: All women age 15-49.
  • Benin 2006: All women age 15-49.
  • Benin 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Burkina Faso 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Burundi 1987: All women age 15-49.
  • Burundi 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Burundi 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Cameroon 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Congo (Democratic Republic) 2013: All women age 15-49.
  • Cote d'Ivoire 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Ethiopia 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • Ethiopia 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Ethiopia 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 2008: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 2014: All women age 15-49.
  • Guinea 2012: All women age 15-49.
  • India 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • India 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Kenya 1993: All women age 15-49.
  • Kenya 2008: All women age 15-49.
  • Kenya 2014: All women age 15-49.
  • Lesotho 2009: All women age 15-49.
  • Lesotho 2014: All women age 15-49.
  • Madagascar 2008: All women age 15-49.
  • Malawi 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Malawi 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Mali 2012: All women age 15-49.
  • Model 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Morocco 1987: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Mozambique 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Myanmar 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Namibia 2006: All women age 15-49.
  • Namibia 2013: All women age 15-64.
  • Niger 2012: All women age 15-49.
  • Nigeria 1999: All women age 10-49.
  • Nigeria 2008: All women age 15-49.
  • Nigeria 2013: All women age 15-49.
  • Pakistan 1991: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Pakistan 2006: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Pakistan 2012: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Rwanda 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Rwanda 2014: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 1986: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2012: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2014: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2017: All women age 15-49.
  • Sudan 1989: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 2004: All women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Tunisia 1988: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Uganda 2001: All women age 15-49.
  • Uganda 2006: All women age 15-49.
  • Uganda 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Uganda 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Yemen 2013: All women age 15-49.
  • Zambia 2007: All women age 15-49.
  • Zambia 2013: All women age 15-49.
  • Zimbabwe 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • Zimbabwe 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Zimbabwe 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Afghanistan: 2015-C, 2015-W, 2015-B, 2015-H
  • Angola: 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B, 2015-H
  • Bangladesh: 1994-H, 1994-C, 1994-B, 1994-W, 1997-H, 1997-C, 1997-B, 1997-W, 2000-H, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2000-W, 2004-H, 2004-C, 2004-B, 2004-W, 2007-H, 2007-C, 2007-B, 2007-W, 2011-H, 2011-C, 2011-B, 2011-W, 2014-H, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B
  • Benin: 1996-W, 1996-C, 1996-B, 1996-H, 2001-W, 2001-C, 2001-B, 2001-H, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2006-H, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B, 2011-H
  • Burkina Faso: 2010-W, 2010-C, 2010-B, 2010-H
  • Burundi: 1987-C, 1987-B, 1987-W, 2010-C, 2010-B, 2010-H, 2010-W, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B, 2016-H
  • Cameroon: 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B, 2011-H
  • Congo (Democratic Republic): 2013-W, 2013-H, 2013-C, 2013-B
  • Cote d'Ivoire: 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B, 2011-H
  • Ethiopia: 2005-W, 2005-C, 2005-B, 2005-H, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B, 2011-H, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B, 2016-H
  • Ghana: 2008-W, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2008-H, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B, 2014-H
  • Guinea: 2012-W, 2012-C, 2012-B, 2012-H
  • India: 2005-W, 2005-C, 2005-B, 2005-H, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B, 2015-H
  • Kenya: 1993-W, 1993-C, 1993-B, 1993-H, 2008-W, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2008-H, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B, 2014-H
  • Lesotho: 2009-W, 2009-H, 2009-C, 2009-B, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B, 2014-H
  • Madagascar: 2008-W, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2008-H
  • Malawi: 2010-W, 2010-C, 2010-B, 2010-H, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B, 2016-H
  • Mali: 2012-W, 2012-C, 2012-B, 2012-H
  • Model: 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B, 2015-H
  • Morocco: 1987-W, 1987-C, 1987-B
  • Mozambique: 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B, 2011-H
  • Myanmar: 2015-C, 2015-W, 2015-B, 2015-H
  • Namibia: 2006-W, 2006-H, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2013-W, 2013-H, 2013-C, 2013-B
  • Niger: 2012-W, 2012-C, 2012-B, 2012-H
  • Nigeria: 1999-H, 1999-W, 1999-C, 1999-B, 2008-W, 2008-C, 2008-H, 2008-B, 2013-W, 2013-C, 2013-H, 2013-B
  • Pakistan: 1991-W, 1991-H, 1991-C, 1991-B, 2006-W, 2006-H, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2012-W, 2012-H, 2012-C, 2012-B
  • Rwanda: 2010-B, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2010-H, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B, 2014-H
  • Senegal: 1986-B, 1986-W, 1986-C, 2010-B, 2010-H, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2012-B, 2012-H, 2012-W, 2012-C, 2014-B, 2014-W, 2014-H, 2014-C, 2015-H, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B, 2016-H, 2017-W, 2017-C, 2017-B, 2017-H
  • Sudan: 1989-B, 1989-W, 1989-C
  • Tanzania: 2004-B, 2004-W, 2004-C, 2004-H, 2010-B, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2010-H, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B, 2015-H
  • Tunisia: 1988-W, 1988-C, 1988-B
  • Uganda: 2001-B, 2001-W, 2001-C, 2001-H, 2006-B, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2006-H, 2011-B, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-H, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B, 2016-H
  • Yemen: 2013-B, 2013-W, 2013-H, 2013-C
  • Zambia: 2007-B, 2007-W, 2007-C, 2007-H, 2013-B, 2013-W, 2013-C, 2013-H
  • Zimbabwe: 2005-H, 2005-B, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2010-H, 2010-B, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2015-H, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B