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WHOWORKFOR (V719)
Whom the respondent works for
Group: Work

Codes and Frequencies



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Description

WHOWORKFOR (V719) indicates whether the respondent works for a family member, for someone else, or is self-employed.

Comparability — Index

GENERAL
Egypt
Nigeria
Rwanda

Comparability

As discussed below, WHOWORKFOR (V719) has universe differences across phases that could affect comparability.

Most commonly, this question is worded as "Do you do this work for a member of your family, for someone else, or are you self-employed?" or some slight variation. However, a minority of samples (noted below) only distinguish between workers who are self-employed and those who are not self-employed. To maximize comparability, IPUMS-DHS uses composite coding. A first digit of 1 indicates those who are self-employed; a first digit of 2 indicates workers who are not self-employed; and the second digit distinguishes between those who work for a family member (code 21) and those who work for someone else (code 22).

Comparability - Standard DHS

WHOWORKFOR (V719) is included in the standard DHS questionnaire for Phase II forward. In Phase II samples, only women who were currently working at the time of the interview were included in the universe. However, in Phase III forward, the universe changed to include women who were currently working or women who had worked at any point in the 12 months prior to the interview. Researchers are encouraged to review the Universe tab and to consider the reference period when comparing across samples.

Comparability — Egypt [top]

In the 1992 Egypt survey, this question is part of a series of calendar-related questions and is worded as "Were you self-employed or an employee?" As a result, the woman's response is only coded as "self-employed" (code 10) or "not self-employed" (code 20).

Comparability — Nigeria [top]

In the 1990 Nigeria survey, this question is worded as, "In your work, are you an employee, self-employed, or an employer?"

Comparability — Rwanda [top]

In the 1992 Rwanda survey, this question is worded as, "In your work, are you an employee, do you work for yourself or your family, or are you an employer?" Because the survey does not distinguish between being self-employed and working for the family, those responses are grouped under "For family member."

Universe

  • Afghanistan 2015: Ever-married women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Bangladesh 1994: Ever-married women age 10-49 who are currently working.
  • Bangladesh 1997: Ever-married women age 10-49 who are currently working.
  • Bangladesh 2011: Ever-married women age 10-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Bangladesh 2014: Ever-married women age 10-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Benin 1996: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Benin 2001: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Benin 2006: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Benin 2011: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Burkina Faso 1993: Women age 15-49 who are currently working.
  • Burkina Faso 1998: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Burkina Faso 2003: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Burkina Faso 2010: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Burundi 2010: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Burundi 2016: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Cameroon 1991: Women age 15-49 who are currently working.
  • Cameroon 1998: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Cameroon 2004: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Cameroon 2011: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Congo (Democratic Republic) 2007: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Congo (Democratic Republic) 2013: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Cote d'Ivoire 1994: Women age 15-49 who are currently working.
  • Cote d'Ivoire 1998: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Cote d'Ivoire 2011: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Egypt 1992: Ever-married women age 15-49 who are currently working.
  • Egypt 1995: Ever-married women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Egypt 2000: Ever-married women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Egypt 2005: Ever-married women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Egypt 2008: Ever-married women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Egypt 2014: Ever-married women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Ethiopia 2000: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Ethiopia 2005: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Ethiopia 2011: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Ethiopia 2016: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Ghana 1993: Women age 15-49 who are currently working.
  • Ghana 1998: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Ghana 2003: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Ghana 2008: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Ghana 2014: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Guinea 1999: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Guinea 2005: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Guinea 2012: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • India 1992: Ever-married women age 13-49 who are currently working.
  • India 1998: Ever-married women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • India 2005: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • India 2015: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months, in households selected for the state module.
  • Kenya 1993: Women age 15-49 who are currently working.
  • Kenya 1998: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Kenya 2003: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Kenya 2008: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Kenya 2014: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months, in households selected for the long questionnaire.
  • Lesotho 2004: Women age 15-49 who are currently working.
  • Lesotho 2009: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Lesotho 2014: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Madagascar 1992: Women age 15-49 who are currently working.
  • Madagascar 1997: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Madagascar 2003: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Madagascar 2008: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Malawi 1992: Women age 15-49 who are currently working.
  • Malawi 2000: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Malawi 2004: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Malawi 2010: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Malawi 2016: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Mali 1995: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Mali 2001: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Mali 2006: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Mali 2012: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Model 2015: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Morocco 1992: Women age 15-49 who have worked in the past month.
  • Morocco 2003: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Mozambique 1997: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Mozambique 2003: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Mozambique 2011: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Myanmar 2015: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Namibia 1992: Women age 15-49 who are currently working.
  • Namibia 2000: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Namibia 2006: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Namibia 2013: Women age 15-64 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Niger 1992: Women age 15-49 who are currently working.
  • Niger 1998: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Niger 2006: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Niger 2012: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Nigeria 1990: Women age 15-49 who are currently working.
  • Nigeria 1999: Women age 10-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Nigeria 2003: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Nigeria 2008: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Nigeria 2013: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Pakistan 1991: Ever-married women age 15-49 who are currently working.
  • Pakistan 2012: Ever-married women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Rwanda 1992: Women age 15-49 who are currently working.
  • Rwanda 2000: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Rwanda 2005: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Rwanda 2010: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Rwanda 2014: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Senegal 1992: Women age 15-49 who are currently working.
  • Senegal 2005: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Senegal 2010: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Senegal 2012: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Senegal 2014: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Senegal 2015: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Senegal 2016: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Senegal 2017: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Tanzania 1991: Women age 15-49 who are currently working.
  • Tanzania 1996: Women age 15-49 who are currently working.
  • Tanzania 1999: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Tanzania 2004: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Tanzania 2010: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Tanzania 2015: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Uganda 1995: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Uganda 2001: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Uganda 2006: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Uganda 2011: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Uganda 2016: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Yemen 1991: Ever-married women age 15-54 who are currently working.
  • Yemen 2013: Ever-married women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Zambia 1992: Women age 15-49 who are currently working.
  • Zambia 1996: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Zambia 2001: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Zambia 2007: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Zambia 2013: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Zimbabwe 1988: Women age 15-49 who are currently working and do not work in agriculture.
  • Zimbabwe 1994: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Zimbabwe 1999: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Zimbabwe 2005: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Zimbabwe 2010: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Zimbabwe 2015: Women age 15-49 who are currently working or have worked in the last 12 months.
  • Afghanistan: 2015-C, 2015-W, 2015-B
  • Bangladesh: 1994-C, 1994-B, 1994-W, 1997-C, 1997-B, 1997-W, 2011-C, 2011-B, 2011-W, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B
  • Benin: 1996-W, 1996-C, 1996-B, 2001-W, 2001-C, 2001-B, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B
  • Burkina Faso: 1993-W, 1993-C, 1993-B, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2010-B
  • Burundi: 2010-C, 2010-B, 2010-W, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B
  • Cameroon: 1991-W, 1991-C, 1991-B, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2004-W, 2004-C, 2004-B, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B
  • Congo (Democratic Republic): 2007-C, 2007-B, 2007-W, 2013-W, 2013-C, 2013-B
  • Cote d'Ivoire: 1994-W, 1994-C, 1994-B, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B
  • Egypt: 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 1995-W, 1995-C, 1995-B, 2000-W, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2005-B, 2008-W, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B
  • Ethiopia: 2000-W, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2005-B, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B
  • Ghana: 1993-W, 1993-C, 1993-B, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2008-W, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B
  • Guinea: 1999-W, 1999-C, 1999-B, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2005-B, 2012-W, 2012-C, 2012-B
  • India: 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2005-B, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B
  • Kenya: 1993-W, 1993-C, 1993-B, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2008-W, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B
  • Lesotho: 2004-W, 2004-C, 2004-B, 2009-W, 2009-C, 2009-B, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B
  • Madagascar: 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 1997-W, 1997-C, 1997-B, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2008-W, 2008-C, 2008-B
  • Malawi: 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 2000-W, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2004-W, 2004-C, 2004-B, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2010-B, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B
  • Mali: 1995-W, 1995-C, 1995-B, 2001-W, 2001-C, 2001-B, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2012-W, 2012-C, 2012-B
  • Model: 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B
  • Morocco: 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B
  • Mozambique: 1997-W, 1997-C, 1997-B, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B
  • Myanmar: 2015-C, 2015-W, 2015-B
  • Namibia: 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 2000-W, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2013-W, 2013-C, 2013-B
  • Niger: 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2012-W, 2012-C, 2012-B
  • Nigeria: 1990-W, 1990-C, 1990-B, 1999-W, 1999-C, 1999-B, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2008-W, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2013-W, 2013-C, 2013-B
  • Pakistan: 1991-W, 1991-C, 1991-B, 2012-W, 2012-C, 2012-B
  • Rwanda: 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 2000-W, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2005-B, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2010-B, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B
  • Senegal: 1992-B, 1992-W, 1992-C, 2005-B, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2010-B, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2012-B, 2012-W, 2012-C, 2014-B, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B, 2017-W, 2017-C, 2017-B
  • Tanzania: 1991-B, 1991-W, 1991-C, 1996-B, 1996-W, 1996-C, 1999-B, 1999-W, 1999-C, 2004-B, 2004-W, 2004-C, 2010-B, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B
  • Uganda: 1995-B, 1995-W, 1995-C, 2001-B, 2001-W, 2001-C, 2006-B, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2011-B, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B
  • Yemen: 1991-B, 1991-W, 1991-C, 2013-B, 2013-W, 2013-C
  • Zambia: 1992-B, 1992-W, 1992-C, 1996-B, 1996-W, 1996-C, 2001-B, 2001-W, 2001-C, 2007-B, 2007-W, 2007-C, 2013-B, 2013-W, 2013-C
  • Zimbabwe: 1988-B, 1988-W, 1988-C, 1994-B, 1994-W, 1994-C, 1999-B, 1999-W, 1999-C, 2005-B, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2010-B, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B