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A planned IPUMS system update is scheduled for Monday, December 9. The maintenance window is 10am to 1pm CST. Within that window, each site will have a brief outage of 10 or fewer minutes. This notice will be removed as soon as the update is complete.
Reason child was not breastfed


This variable is not available for any of the currently selected samples.


For children who were born in the three to five years preceding the survey and were not breastfed, WHYNOBRFD (M20) reports why they were not breastfed.


In addition to universe differences and slight differences in question wording, WHYNOBRFD (M20) varies in the number of response categories. To maximize comparability, IPUMS DHS uses composite coding, with the first digit providing the general reason (e.g., "Health problem" (code "10")), and the second digit providing additional detail, when this information is available (e.g., "Mother ill or weak" (code "11")).

Comparability - Standard DHS

WHYNOBRFD (M20) is included in the standard DHS questionnaire for Phase II only.


No universe descriptions are currently available.
  • Burkina Faso: 1993-C, 1998-C
  • Cameroon: 1991-C
  • Cote d'Ivoire: 1994-C
  • Egypt: 1988-C, 1992-C, 2000-C
  • Ghana: 1993-C
  • India: 1992-C
  • Jordan: 1990-C
  • Kenya: 1993-C
  • Madagascar: 1992-C
  • Malawi: 1992-C
  • Morocco: 1992-C, 2003-C
  • Namibia: 1992-C
  • Niger: 1992-C
  • Nigeria: 1990-C
  • Pakistan: 1991-C, 2017-C
  • Rwanda: 1992-C
  • Senegal: 1992-C
  • Sudan: 1989-C
  • Tanzania: 1991-C
  • Yemen: 1991-C
  • Zambia: 1992-C