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WHYNOBRFD_ALL (M20_X)
Reason did not breastfeed

WHYNOBRFD_ALL variables are 2-digit variables.

See WHYNOBRFD_01 for the codes for these variables.

Description

For women who gave birth in the last three to five years and never breastfed the child, WHYNOBRFD_ALL (M20_x) reports why they did not breastfeed.

WHYNOBRFD_ALL consists of a set of six separate variables, covering the most recent birth (WHYNOBRFD_01) up to the sixth-most-recent birth (i.e., WHYNOBRFD_02, WHYNOBRFD_03, WHYNOBRFD_04, WHYNOBRFD_05, and WHYNOBRFD_06) during the reference period prior to the survey. If WHYNOBRFD_ALL is included in a data extract, all these separate variables are included in a researcher's data file.

For surveys including this question, information for this variable was collected on all births, up to a maximum of six, in the reference period. In many cases, data were hypothetically collected on up to six births, but no women in the survey had so many births (e.g., no woman had 4 or more births in 3 years, or had 5 or 6 births in 5 years). If, for example, no woman in a survey had 6 births in five years and only blank values were included in the original DHS file, then WHYNOBRFD_06 would not be available for that survey in IPUMS-DHS.

Comparability

In addition to universe differences and slight differences in question wording, WHYNOBRFD_ALL (M20_x) varies in the number of response categories. To maximize comparability, IPUMS DHS uses composite coding, with the first digit providing the general reason (e.g., "Health problem" (code "10")), and the second digit providing additional detail, when this information is available (e.g., "Mother ill or weak" (code "11")).

Comparability - Standard DHS

WHYNOBRFD_ALL (M20_x) is included in the standard DHS questionnaire for Phase II only.

Universe

  • Burkina Faso 1993: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey and did not breastfeed the child.
  • Cameroon 1991: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey and did not breastfeed the child.
  • Egypt 1992: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey and did not breastfeed the child.
  • Egypt 2000: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey and did not breastfeed the child.
  • Ghana 1993: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 3 years before the survey and did not breastfeed the child.
  • India 1992: Ever-married women age 13-49 who gave birth in the 4 years before the survey and did not breastfeed the child.
  • Jordan 1990: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey and did not breastfeed the child.
  • Kenya 1993: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey and did not breastfeed the child.
  • Madagascar 1992: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey and did not breastfeed the child.
  • Malawi 1992: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey and did not breastfeed the child.
  • Morocco 1992: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey and did not breastfeed the child.
  • Morocco 2003: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey and did not breastfeed the child.
  • Namibia 1992: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey and did not breastfeed the child.
  • Niger 1992: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey and did not breastfeed the child.
  • Nigeria 1990: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey and did not breastfeed the child.
  • Pakistan 1991: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey and did not breastfeed the child.
  • Pakistan 2017: Ever-married women age 15-49 whose last-born child under age 5 is still alive and was never breastfed.
  • Rwanda 1992: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey and did not breastfeed the child.
  • Senegal 1992: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey and did not breastfeed the child.
  • Sudan 1989: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey and did not breastfeed the child.
  • Tanzania 1991: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey and did not breastfeed the child.
  • Yemen 1991: Ever-married women age 15-54 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey and did not breastfeed the child.
  • Zambia 1992: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey and did not breastfeed the child.
  • Burkina Faso: 1993-W
  • Cameroon: 1991-W
  • Egypt: 1992-W, 2000-W
  • Ghana: 1993-W
  • India: 1992-W
  • Jordan: 1990-W
  • Kenya: 1993-W
  • Madagascar: 1992-W
  • Malawi: 1992-W
  • Morocco: 1992-W, 2003-W
  • Namibia: 1992-W
  • Niger: 1992-W
  • Nigeria: 1990-W
  • Pakistan: 1991-W, 2017-W
  • Rwanda: 1992-W
  • Senegal: 1992-W
  • Sudan: 1989-W
  • Tanzania: 1991-W
  • Yemen: 1991-W
  • Zambia: 1992-W