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Source providing drinking water

Codes and Frequencies

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WTRPROVIDER reports the entity supplying (and paid for) the household's supply of drinking water.

For most samples (see Comparability), the information in TOILETSHAREPRIV is taken from the household record and applies to regular household residents, not temporary visitors. Researchers may wish to exclude visitors using the RESIDENT variable (with visitors coded "2") when women, children, or births are the unit of analysis, and using the HHRESIDENT variable when household members are the unit of analysis.

Comparability — Index



WTRPROVIDER varies significantly across samples in the question wording and universe. In some samples, only women in households whose drinking water was piped into or close to their dwelling were asked this question; in other samples, all women were asked. Some samples asked what organization provided water, while others asked from what organization water was purchased. For surveys using the latter wording, "Obtained for free" was included as a response category. IPUMS-DHS users are advised to consult the Survey Text tab for samples of interest.

Because samples vary in the degree of detail in responses, IPUMS-DHS uses composite coding for WTRPROVIDER. For example, all private water suppliers have a first digit code of "2," while additional detail is preserved in the second digit (e.g., "NGO" has code "21.")

Comparability - Standard DHS

WTRPROVIDER is a country-specific variable not included in the standard DHS household questionnaire.

Comparability — Egypt [top]

The 1988 Egypt survey variable identifies non-residents because the information for WTRPROVIDER was taken from the individual woman's record (IR file).


  • Egypt 1988: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Morocco 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 2010: Women age 15-49 in households that got drinking water piped into their dwelling, plot, or a public tap.
  • Tanzania 2015: Women age 15-49 in households that got drinking water piped into their dwelling, plot, or from a neighbor's dwelling.
  • Egypt: 1988-W, 1988-C, 1988-B
  • Morocco: 2003-H, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B
  • Tanzania: 2010-H, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2010-M, 2010-B, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-H, 2015-B, 2015-M