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ECOREGION (ECOREGION)
Ecoregion of household

Ecoregion is a categorical variable with 5-digit numeric codes. The first digit indicates the realm, the next two digits indicate the biome, and the last two digits indicate the ecoregion number.

Codes

-998 = Missing

Please refer to the ecoregion legend for the list of ecoregions' codes, labels, and other associated attributes.

Description

ECOREGION reports the predominant terrestrial ecoregion within a 5-kilometer circular buffer around each DHS cluster location. ECOREGION reports the biogeographic region (e.g., Afrotropic), the habitat type (e.g., tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands), and the ecoregion (e.g., East Sudanian savanna) that are associated with each cluster location. ECOREGION is available for every IPUMS-DHS sample with GPS data.

There are 825 terrestrial ecoregions in the world. Ecoregions are relatively large units of land containing distinct assemblages of natural communities and species, with boundaries that approximate the original extent of natural communities prior to major land-use change. The 5-digit codes in ECOREGION (e.g., 30129) include a 1-digit realm code (with 8 possible values), followed by a 2-digit biome code (with 14 possible values), and then a 2-digit ecoregion number. For the full list of codes and their meaning, see the ecoregion legend .

ECOREGION, like the other IPUMS-DHS contextual variables, is calculated and based on sources external to the DHS data. For more information on IPUMS-DHS contextual variables and how they are constructed, refer to the documentation on these variables.

Comparability

ECOREGION is comparable across samples.

Comparability - Standard DHS

ECOREGION is a contextual variable based on sources outside the DHS data.

Universe

  • Angola 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Bangladesh 2000: Ever-married women age 10-49.
  • Bangladesh 2004: Ever-married women age 10-49.
  • Bangladesh 2007: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Bangladesh 2011: Ever-married women age 12-49.
  • Bangladesh 2014: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Benin 1996: All women age 15-49.
  • Benin 2001: All women age 15-49.
  • Benin 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Burkina Faso 1993: All women age 15-49.
  • Burkina Faso 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • Burkina Faso 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Burkina Faso 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Burundi 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Burundi 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Cameroon 1991: All women age 15-49.
  • Cameroon 2004: All women age 15-49.
  • Cameroon 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Congo (Democratic Republic) 2007: All women age 15-49.
  • Congo (Democratic Republic) 2013: All women age 15-49.
  • Cote d'Ivoire 1994: All women age 15-49.
  • Cote d'Ivoire 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • Cote d'Ivoire 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 1992: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 1995: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 2000: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 2005: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 2008: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Egypt 2014: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Ethiopia 2000: All women age 15-49.
  • Ethiopia 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • Ethiopia 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Ethiopia 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 1993: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 2008: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana 2014: All women age 15-49.
  • Guinea 1999: All women age 15-49.
  • Guinea 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • Guinea 2012: All women age 15-49.
  • India 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Jordan 2002: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Jordan 2007: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Jordan 2012: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Kenya 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Kenya 2008: All women age 15-49.
  • Kenya 2014: All women age 15-49.
  • Lesotho 2004: All women age 15-49.
  • Lesotho 2009: All women age 15-49.
  • Lesotho 2014: All women age 15-49.
  • Madagascar 1997: All women age 15-49.
  • Madagascar 2008: All women age 15-49.
  • Malawi 2000: All women age 15-49.
  • Malawi 2004: All women age 15-49.
  • Malawi 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Malawi 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Mali 1995: All women age 15-49.
  • Mali 2001: All women age 15-49.
  • Mali 2006: All women age 15-49.
  • Mali 2012: All women age 15-49.
  • Morocco 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Mozambique 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Myanmar 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Namibia 2000: All women age 15-49.
  • Namibia 2006: All women age 15-49.
  • Namibia 2013: All women age 15-64.
  • Nepal 2001: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Nepal 2006: All women age 15-49.
  • Nepal 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Nepal 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Niger 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Niger 1998: All women age 15-49.
  • Nigeria 1990: All women age 15-49.
  • Nigeria 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Nigeria 2008: All women age 15-49.
  • Nigeria 2013: All women age 15-49.
  • Pakistan 2006: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Rwanda 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • Rwanda 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Rwanda 2014: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 1992: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 1997: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2012: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 1999: All women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Zambia 2007: All women age 15-49.
  • Zambia 2013: All women age 15-49.
  • Zimbabwe 1999: All women age 15-49.
  • Zimbabwe 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • Zimbabwe 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Zimbabwe 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Angola: 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B, 2015-M, 2015-H
  • Bangladesh: 2000-H, 2000-C, 2000-M, 2000-B, 2000-W, 2004-H, 2004-C, 2004-M, 2004-B, 2004-W, 2007-H, 2007-C, 2007-M, 2007-B, 2007-W, 2011-H, 2011-C, 2011-M, 2011-B, 2011-W, 2014-H, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B
  • Benin: 1996-W, 1996-M, 1996-C, 1996-B, 1996-H, 2001-W, 2001-M, 2001-C, 2001-B, 2001-H, 2011-M, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B, 2011-H
  • Burkina Faso: 1993-W, 1993-M, 1993-C, 1993-B, 1993-H, 1998-W, 1998-M, 1998-C, 1998-B, 1998-H, 2003-W, 2003-M, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2003-H, 2010-M, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2010-B, 2010-H
  • Burundi: 2010-C, 2010-M, 2010-B, 2010-H, 2010-W, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B, 2016-M, 2016-H
  • Cameroon: 1991-W, 1991-M, 1991-C, 1991-B, 1991-H, 2004-W, 2004-M, 2004-C, 2004-B, 2004-H, 2011-M, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B, 2011-H
  • Congo (Democratic Republic): 2007-H, 2007-C, 2007-B, 2007-M, 2007-W, 2013-W, 2013-H, 2013-C, 2013-B, 2013-M
  • Cote d'Ivoire: 1994-M, 1994-W, 1994-C, 1994-B, 1994-H, 1998-M, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 1998-H, 2011-M, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B, 2011-H
  • Egypt: 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 1992-H, 1995-W, 1995-C, 1995-B, 1995-H, 2000-W, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2000-H, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2005-B, 2005-H, 2008-W, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2008-H, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B, 2014-H
  • Ethiopia: 2000-W, 2000-M, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2000-H, 2005-W, 2005-M, 2005-C, 2005-B, 2005-H, 2011-W, 2011-M, 2011-C, 2011-B, 2011-H, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B, 2016-M, 2016-H
  • Ghana: 1993-W, 1993-M, 1993-C, 1993-B, 1993-H, 1998-W, 1998-H, 1998-M, 1998-C, 1998-B, 2003-W, 2003-M, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2003-H, 2008-W, 2008-M, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2008-H, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-M, 2014-B, 2014-H
  • Guinea: 1999-W, 1999-M, 1999-C, 1999-B, 1999-H, 2005-W, 2005-M, 2005-C, 2005-B, 2005-H, 2012-W, 2012-M, 2012-C, 2012-B, 2012-H
  • India: 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B, 2015-M, 2015-H
  • Jordan: 2002-W, 2002-C, 2002-B, 2002-H, 2007-W, 2007-C, 2007-B, 2007-H, 2012-W, 2012-C, 2012-B, 2012-H
  • Kenya: 2003-W, 2003-M, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2003-H, 2008-W, 2008-M, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2008-H, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-M, 2014-B, 2014-H
  • Lesotho: 2004-W, 2004-M, 2004-H, 2004-C, 2004-B, 2009-W, 2009-M, 2009-H, 2009-C, 2009-B, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B, 2014-M, 2014-H
  • Madagascar: 1997-W, 1997-C, 1997-B, 1997-H, 2008-W, 2008-M, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2008-H
  • Malawi: 2000-W, 2000-M, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2000-H, 2004-W, 2004-M, 2004-C, 2004-B, 2004-H, 2010-W, 2010-M, 2010-C, 2010-B, 2010-H, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B, 2016-M, 2016-H
  • Mali: 1995-W, 1995-M, 1995-C, 1995-B, 1995-H, 2001-W, 2001-M, 2001-C, 2001-B, 2001-H, 2006-W, 2006-M, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2006-H, 2012-W, 2012-M, 2012-C, 2012-B, 2012-H
  • Morocco: 2003-H, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B
  • Mozambique: 2011-W, 2011-M, 2011-C, 2011-B, 2011-H
  • Myanmar: 2015-C, 2015-W, 2015-B, 2015-M, 2015-H
  • Namibia: 2000-W, 2000-M, 2000-H, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2006-W, 2006-M, 2006-H, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2013-W, 2013-M, 2013-H, 2013-C, 2013-B
  • Nepal: 2001-W, 2001-C, 2001-H, 2001-M, 2001-B, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2006-H, 2006-M, 2006-B, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-H, 2011-M, 2011-B, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B, 2016-M, 2016-H
  • Niger: 1992-W, 1992-M, 1992-C, 1992-B, 1992-H, 1998-W, 1998-M, 1998-C, 1998-B, 1998-H
  • Nigeria: 1990-W, 1990-C, 1990-B, 1990-H, 2003-W, 2003-M, 2003-C, 2003-H, 2003-B, 2008-W, 2008-M, 2008-C, 2008-H, 2008-B, 2013-W, 2013-M, 2013-C, 2013-H, 2013-B
  • Pakistan: 2006-W, 2006-H, 2006-C, 2006-B
  • Rwanda: 2005-B, 2005-W, 2005-M, 2005-C, 2005-H, 2010-B, 2010-W, 2010-M, 2010-C, 2010-H, 2014-W, 2014-C, 2014-B, 2014-M, 2014-H
  • Senegal: 1992-B, 1992-M, 1992-H, 1992-W, 1992-C, 1997-B, 1997-M, 1997-H, 1997-W, 1997-C, 2005-B, 2005-M, 2005-H, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2010-B, 2010-M, 2010-H, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2012-B, 2012-H, 2012-W, 2012-C, 2015-M, 2015-H, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B, 2016-M, 2016-H
  • Tanzania: 1999-B, 1999-W, 1999-M, 1999-C, 1999-H, 2010-B, 2010-W, 2010-M, 2010-C, 2010-H, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B, 2015-M, 2015-H
  • Zambia: 2007-B, 2007-W, 2007-M, 2007-C, 2007-H, 2013-B, 2013-W, 2013-C, 2013-M, 2013-H
  • Zimbabwe: 1999-H, 1999-B, 1999-W, 1999-M, 1999-C, 2005-H, 2005-B, 2005-W, 2005-M, 2005-C, 2010-H, 2010-B, 2010-W, 2010-M, 2010-C, 2015-H, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B, 2015-M