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Main source of lighting in HH

Codes and Frequencies

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LIGHTSOURCE reports the main source of lighting in the household.

The information in LIGHTSOURCE is taken from the household record, linked to the record of the woman respondent. This information applies to household residents, not temporary visitors, so researchers may wish to exclude visitors using the RESIDENT variable (with visitors coded "2").


Along with slight differences in question wording and universes, LIGHTSOURCE's response categories vary across samples. To maximize comparability, IPUMS-DHS uses composite coding and a 2-digit coding system.

The first digit of LIGHTSOURCE broadly distinguishes between lighting sources: 1) electricity, 2) kerosene, 3) gas, 4) oil, 5) wood-based lighting, 6) candles, and 7) other sources of lighting fuel. The second digit distinguishes provides additional detail within these broad categories.

Comparability - Standard DHS

LIGHTSOURCE is a country-specific household variable not included in the standard DHS questionnaire.


  • Benin 2006: All women age 15-49.
  • Burundi 1987: All women age 15-49.
  • Chad 1996: All women age 15-49.
  • Chad 2004: All women age 15-49.
  • India 1992: Ever-married women age 13-49.
  • India 1998: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Liberia 2013: All women age 15-49.
  • Morocco 1987: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Morocco 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Nigeria 1999: All women age 10-49.
  • Senegal 1986: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2012: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2014: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Senegal 2017: All women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 2004: All women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Tunisia 1988: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Uganda 2001: All women age 15-49.
  • Yemen 1991: Ever-married women age 15-54.
  • Yemen 2013: All women age 15-49.
  • Benin: 2006-W, 2006-W, 2006-M, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2006-H
  • Burundi: 1987-C, 1987-B, 1987-W
  • Chad: 1996-W, 1996-B, 1996-M, 1996-H, 1996-C, 2004-W, 2004-B, 2004-M, 2004-H, 2004-C
  • India: 1992-W, 1992-C, 1992-B, 1992-H, 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 1998-H
  • Liberia: 2013-W, 2013-C, 2013-W, 2013-M, 2013-H, 2013-B
  • Morocco: 1987-W, 1987-C, 1987-B, 2003-H, 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-W, 2003-B
  • Nigeria: 1999-H, 1999-W, 1999-M, 1999-C, 1999-B
  • Senegal: 1986-B, 1986-W, 1986-C, 2010-B, 2010-M, 2010-H, 2010-W, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2012-B, 2012-H, 2012-W, 2012-W, 2012-C, 2014-B, 2014-M, 2014-W, 2014-H, 2014-C, 2014-W, 2015-M, 2015-H, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B, 2015-W, 2016-W, 2016-C, 2016-B, 2016-M, 2016-H, 2016-W, 2017-W, 2017-C, 2017-B, 2017-W, 2017-M, 2017-H
  • Tanzania: 2004-B, 2004-W, 2004-M, 2004-W, 2004-C, 2004-H, 2010-B, 2010-W, 2010-M, 2010-W, 2010-C, 2010-H, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B, 2015-M, 2015-W, 2015-H
  • Tunisia: 1988-W, 1988-C, 1988-B
  • Uganda: 2001-B, 2001-W, 2001-M, 2001-W, 2001-C, 2001-H
  • Yemen: 1991-B, 1991-W, 1991-H, 1991-C, 2013-B, 2013-W, 2013-H, 2013-C, 2013-W