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Malaria spread by: Sun exposure

Codes and Frequencies

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MLSPREDSUN indicates whether, in response to an open-ended question, the woman reported spending time in the sun as a way to get malaria.

Comparability — Index



Apart from universe differences and slight differences in question wording (noted below), MLSPREDSUN is comparable across samples.

Comparability - Standard DHS

MLSPREDSUN is a country-specific variable, and it is not included in any phase of the standard DHS questionnaire.

Comparability — Ghana [top]

The 2016 Ghana MIS survey includes "standing/working in the sun" as a response category.

Comparability — Guinea [top]

The 1999 Guinea survey includes "Working in the sun for a long time" as a response category.

Comparability — Mali [top]

The 2018 Mali survey words this response category as "direct exposure to the sun."

Further, the 2018 Mali survey asks specifically about the main cause of malaria.

Comparability — Rwanda [top]

The 2000 and 2005 Rwanda surveys include "Sun exposure" as a response category.


  • Ghana 2016: All women age 15-49.
  • Guinea 1999: Women age 15-49 who have heard of malaria.
  • Mali 2018: All women age 15-49.
  • Rwanda 2000: All women age 15-49.
  • Rwanda 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • Ghana: 2016-W, 2016-C
  • Guinea: 1999-C, 1999-B, 1999-W
  • Mali: 2018-W, 2018-C, 2018-B, 2018-W
  • Rwanda: 2000-W, 2000-W, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2005-W, 2005-W, 2005-B, 2005-C