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HH treats water by: Using alum

Codes and Frequencies

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TRALUM indicates whether the respondent said, in response to an open-ended question, that the household usually uses alum to make water safer to drink. Alum (Aluminum Sulfate) added to cloudy water neutralizes the electrical charge of small suspended particles, so the particles clump together and sink to the bottom of the water container.

The information in TRALUM is taken from the household record, linked to the record of the woman respondent. This information applies to household residents, not temporary visitors, so researchers may wish to exclude visitors using the RESIDENT variable (with visitors coded "2").

Comparability — Index



In addition to universe differences, TRALUM differs slightly in question wording across samples. Most surveys asked, "What do you usually do to make the water safer to drink? Anything else?" Exceptions are noted below.

Comparability - Standard DHS

TRALUM is a country-specific household variable not included in the standard DHS questionnaire.

Comparability — India [top]

The 1998 Indian survey asked, "What do you do to purify drinking water, if anything?"


  • India 1998: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • India 2005: Women age 15-49 in households that use any water treatment.
  • India 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Nigeria 2008: All women age 15-49.
  • Nigeria 2013: All women age 15-49.
  • Nigeria 2018: All women age 15-49.
  • India: 1998-W, 1998-C, 1998-B, 1998-H, 2005-W, 2005-M, 2005-C, 2005-B, 2005-H, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B, 2015-M, 2015-H
  • Nigeria: 2008-W, 2008-M, 2008-C, 2008-H, 2008-B, 2013-W, 2013-M, 2013-C, 2013-H, 2013-B, 2018-C, 2018-B, 2018-M, 2018-H, 2018-W