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ANCARENURM_ALL (M2B_X)
Nurse/midwife gave prenatal care

ANCARENURM_ALL variables are 1-digit variables.

Codes

0 = No
1 = Yes
8 = Missing
9 = NIU (not in universe)

Description

For women who gave birth in the last three to five years, ANCARENURM_ALL (M2B_x) indicates whether, in response to an open-ended question, they reported that a nurse or midwife (categories combined or not distinguished) gave antenatal care.

ANCARENURM_ALL consists of a set of up to six separate variables, covering the most recent birth (ANCARENURM_01) up to the sixth-most-recent birth (i.e., ANCARENURM_02, ANCARENURM_03, ANCARENURM_04, ANCARENURM_05, and ANCARENURM_06) during the reference period prior to the survey. If ANCARENURM_ALL is included in a data extract, all these separate variables are included in a researcher's data file.

For many surveys, particularly those taken after 2000, this information was collected for only the most recent birth (ANCARENURM_01) and, in a few cases, the second-most-recent birth (ANCARENURM_02). Surveys in which the data were collected for only the most recent births are noted in the comparability section.

For other surveys, information for this variable was collected on all births, up to a maximum of six, in the reference period; exceptions in which data were collected on only the most recent birth(s) are noted in the comparability section. In many cases, data were hypothetically collected on up to six births, but no women in the survey had so many births (e.g., no woman had 4 or more births in 3 years, or had 5 or 6 births in 5 years). If, for example, no woman in a survey had 6 births in five years and only blank values were included in the original DHS file, then ANCARENURM_06 would not be available for that survey in IPUMS-DHS.

Some samples in the "ANCARE" series, such as ANCARENURM_ALL, include categories that can be consolidated into a single response. IPUMS-DHS uses supplemental programming to combine these responses in a standard variable while preserving the separate responses in country-specific variables.

For example, a given sample might include separate response categories for nurse and midwife that could be combined to create the more comprehensive response category in ANCARENURM_ALL. See Comparability for more information on the specific categories included in this variable for relevant samples.

Comparability — Index

GENERAL
Afghanistan
Angola
Benin
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Congo (Democratic Republic)
Cote d'Ivoire
Egypt
Ethiopia
Ghana
Guinea
Jordan
Kenya
Lesotho
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Morocco
Mozambique
Nepal
Niger
Nigeria
Senegal
South Africa
Tanzania
Uganda
Yemen
Zambia
Zimbabwe

Comparability

In addition to universe differences, ANCARENURM_ALL varies slightly in question wording. Most commonly, this response category is organized under the "Health Personnel" header and is worded as "nurse/midwife." However, some countries diverge from this standard convention, and, in some cases, multiple categories were consolidated to form a single, more comprehensive response. Countries of particular interest are noted below.

Comparability - Standard DHS

ANCARENURM_ALL (M2B_x) is included in the standard DHS questionnaire for Phase II forward.

Comparability — Afghanistan [top]

The 2015 Afghanistan survey collected this information for the last birth only.

Comparability — Angola [top]

The 2000 Bangladesh survey collected this information for the last birth only; the 1994 and 1997 Bangladesh surveys collected this information for additional births.

The 1994, 1997, and 2000 Bangladesh surveys include the survey response "nurse/midwife." The 2004, 2007, 2011, and 2014 Bangladesh surveys include the related survey response "nurse/midwife/paramedic" (ANCAREBD3_01).

Comparability — Benin [top]

The 2001, 2006, 2011, and 2017 Benin surveys collected this information for the last birth only; the 1996 Benin survey collected this information for additional births.

The 2017 Benin survey includes separate categories for "nurse" and "midwife." Because this variable focuses on the combined category of nurse/midwife, these two responses are consolidated in ANCARENURM_ALL to create a more comprehensive response category. For researchers interested in preserving these country-specific categories:

Comparability — Burkina Faso [top]

The 2010 Burkina Faso survey collected this information for the last birth only; the 1993 and 1998 Burkina Faso surveys collected this information for additional births.

The 1998 and 2010 Burkina Faso surveys include separate categories for "nurse" and "midwife." Because this variable focuses on the combined category of nurse/midwife, these two responses are consolidated in ANCARENURM_ALL to create a more comprehensive response category. For researchers interested in preserving these country-specific categories:

Comparability — Burundi [top]

The 2010 and 2016 Burundi surveys collected this information for the last birth only.

The 2016 Burundi survey includes separate categories for "nurse" and "midwife." Because this variable focuses on the combined category of nurse/midwife, these two responses are consolidated in ANCARENURM_ALL to create a more comprehensive response category. For researchers interested in preserving these country-specific categories:

Comparability — Cameroon [top]

The 2004 Cameroon survey collected this information for the last birth only; the 1991 and 1998 Cameroon surveys collected this information for additional births.

Comparability — Congo (Democratic Republic) [top]

The 2007 and 2013 Congo Democratic Republic surveys collected this information for the last birth only.

Comparability — Cote d'Ivoire [top]

The 2011 Cote d'Ivoire survey collected this information for the last birth only; the 1994 and 1998 Cote d'Ivoire surveys collected this information for additional births.

The 1994 and 1998 Cote d'Ivoire surveys include separate categories for "nurse" and "midwife." Because this variable focuses on the combined category of nurse/midwife, these two responses are consolidated in ANCARENURM_ALL to create a more comprehensive response category. For researchers interested in preserving these country-specific categories:

Comparability — Egypt [top]

The Egyptian surveys for 1992, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2008, and 2014 collected this information for all births within the reference period.

The 2005 Egypt survey reworded the question to include any other person(s) seen for "health care (other than an antenatal checkup or a tetanus injection)."

Comparability — Ethiopia [top]

The 2011 and 2016 Ethiopian surveys collected this information for the most recent birth only.

The 2011 Ethiopian survey includes the survey response "nurse/midwife." The 2000 and 2005 Ethiopian surveys include the response "health professional," (ANCAREET1_01) which would include doctors, nurses, and midwives.

The 2016 Ethiopia survey includes separate categories for "nurse" and "midwife." Because this variable focuses on the combined category of nurse/midwife, these two responses are consolidated in ANCARENURM_ALL to create a more comprehensive response category. For researchers interested in preserving these country-specific categories:

Comparability — Ghana [top]

The 2003, 2008, and 2014 Ghana surveys collected this information for the last birth only; the 1988 Ghana survey collected this information for additional births.

The 1993 and 1998 Ghana surveys include separate categories for "nurse" and "midwife." Because this variable focuses on the combined category of nurse/midwife, these two responses are consolidated in ANCARENURM_ALL to create a more comprehensive response category. For researchers interested in preserving these country-specific categories:

Comparability — Guinea [top]

The 2005 and 2012 Guinea surveys collected this information for the last birth only; the 1999 Guinea survey collected this information for additional births.

The 1999, 2005, and 2012 Guinea surveys include separate categories for "nurse" and "midwife." Because this variable focuses on the combined category of nurse/midwife, these two responses are consolidated in ANCARENURM_ALL to create a more comprehensive response category. For researchers interested in preserving these country-specific categories:

Comparability — Jordan [top]

The 2002, 2007, 2012, and 2017 Jordan surveys collected this information on the most recent birth only; the 1990 and 1997 Jordan surveys collected this information on additional births.

Comparability — Kenya [top]

The 2003, 2008, and 2014 Kenyan surveys collected this information for the last birth only; the 1993 and 1998 Kenya surveys collected this information for additional births.

Comparability — Lesotho [top]

The 2004 and 2014 Lesotho surveys collected this information for the last birth only.

Comparability — Madagascar [top]

The 1992 and 1997 Madagascar surveys collected this information for all births in the reference period.

Comparability — Malawi [top]

The 2000, 2004, 2010, and 2016 Malawi surveys collected this information for the last birth only; the 1992 Malawi survey collected this information for additional births.

Comparability — Mali [top]

The 2001, 2006, and 2012 Mali surveys collected this information for the last birth only; the 1995 Mali survey collected this information for additional births.

The 2006 Mali survey includes separate categories for "obstetrics nurse," "other nurse" and "midwife." Because this variable focuses on the combined category of nurse/midwife, these three responses are consolidated in ANCARENURM_ALL to create a more comprehensive response category. For researchers interested in preserving these country-specific categories:

Comparability — Morocco [top]

The 2003 Morocco survey collected this information for the last birth only; the 1992 Morocco survey collected this information for additional births.

Comparability — Mozambique [top]

The 2003 and 2011 Mozambique surveys collected this information for the last birth only; the 1997 Mozambique survey collected this information for additional births.

The 2003 and 2011 Mozambique surveys include separate categories for "nurse" and "midwife." Because this variable focuses on the combined category of nurse/midwife, these two responses are consolidated in ANCARENURM_ALL to create a more comprehensive response category. For researchers interested in preserving these country-specific categories:

Comparability — Nepal [top]

The 2001, 2006, 2011, and 2016 Nepal surveys collected this information on the most recent birth only; the 1996 Nepal survey collected this information on additional births.

The 1996 and 2001 Nepal survey includes "Nurse/auxiliary nurse midwife" as a response category. The 2006, 2011, and 2016 Nepal surveys include the more standard "Nurse/midwife" as a response category.

Comparability — Niger [top]

The 2006 and 2012 Niger surveys collected this information for the last birth only; the 1992 and 1998 Niger surveys collected this information for additional births.

Comparability — Nigeria [top]

The 2003 and 2013 Nigerian surveys collected this information for the last birth only; the 1999 Nigerian survey collected this information for additional births.

Comparability — Senegal [top]

The 2005, 2010, 2012, 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017 Senegal surveys collected this information for the last birth only.

The 2005, 2010, 2012, 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017 Senegal surveys include separate categories for "nurse" and "midwife." Because this variable focuses on the combined category of nurse/midwife, these two responses are consolidated in ANCARENURM_ALL to create a more comprehensive response category. For researchers interested in preserving these country-specific categories:

Comparability — South Africa [top]

The 2016 South Africa survey collected this information for the last birth only; the 1998 South Africa survey collected this information for additional births.

Comparability — Tanzania [top]

The 1999, 2004, 2010, and 2015 Tanzania surveys collected this information for the last birth only; the 1991 and 1996 Tanzania surveys collected this information for additional births.

Comparability — Uganda [top]

The 2001, 2006, 2011, and 2016 Uganda surveys collected this information for the last birth only; the 1995 Uganda survey collected this information for additional births.

Comparability — Yemen [top]

The 2013 Yemen survey collected this information for the last birth only; the 1991 Yemen survey collected this information for additional births.

The 1991 Yemen survey includes "Trained nurse/midwife" as a response category. The 2013 Yemen survey includes the more standard "Nurse/midwife" as a response category.

Comparability — Zambia [top]

The 2001, 2007, and 2013 Zambia surveys collected this information for the last birth only; the 1996 Zambia survey collected this information for additional births.

Comparability — Zimbabwe [top]

The 1999, 2005, 2010, and 2015 Zimbabwe surveys collected this information for the last birth only; the 1994 Zimbabwe survey collected this information for additional births.

Universe

  • Afghanistan 2015: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Angola 2015: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Bangladesh 1994: Ever-married women age 10-49 who gave birth in the 3 years before the survey.
  • Bangladesh 1997: Ever-married women age 10-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Bangladesh 2000: Ever-married women age 10-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Benin 1996: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 3 years before the survey.
  • Benin 2001: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Benin 2006: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Benin 2011: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Burkina Faso 1993: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Burkina Faso 1998: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Burkina Faso 2010: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Burundi 2010: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Burundi 2016: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Cameroon 1991: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Cameroon 1998: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 3 years before the survey.
  • Cameroon 2004: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Cameroon 2011: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Congo (Democratic Republic) 2007: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Congo (Democratic Republic) 2013: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Cote d'Ivoire 1994: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 3 years before the survey.
  • Cote d'Ivoire 1998: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Cote d'Ivoire 2011: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Egypt 1992: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Egypt 1995: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Egypt 2000: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Egypt 2005: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Egypt 2008: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Egypt 2014: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Ethiopia 2011: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Ethiopia 2016: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Ghana 1993: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 3 years before the survey.
  • Ghana 1998: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Ghana 2003: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Ghana 2008: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Ghana 2014: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Guinea 1999: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Guinea 2005: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Guinea 2012: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • India 1992: Ever-married women age 13-49 who gave birth in the 4 years before the survey.
  • Jordan 1990: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Jordan 1997: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Jordan 2002: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Jordan 2007: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Jordan 2012: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Jordan 2017: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Kenya 1993: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Kenya 1998: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 3 years before the survey.
  • Kenya 2003: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Kenya 2008: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Kenya 2014: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Lesotho 2004: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Lesotho 2014: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Madagascar 1992: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Madagascar 1997: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 3 years before the survey.
  • Malawi 1992: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Malawi 2000: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Malawi 2004: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Malawi 2010: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Malawi 2016: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Mali 1995: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 3 years before the survey.
  • Mali 2001: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Mali 2006: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Mali 2012: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Morocco 1992: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Morocco 2003: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Mozambique 1997: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 3 years before the survey.
  • Mozambique 2003: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Mozambique 2011: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Namibia 1992: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Namibia 2000: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Namibia 2006: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Namibia 2013: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Nepal 1996: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 3 years before the survey.
  • Nepal 2001: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Nepal 2006: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Nepal 2011: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Nepal 2016: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Niger 1992: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Niger 1998: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 3 years before the survey.
  • Niger 2006: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Niger 2012: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Nigeria 1999: Women age 10-49 who gave birth in the 3 years before the survey.
  • Nigeria 2003: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Nigeria 2008: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Nigeria 2013: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Senegal 2005: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Senegal 2010: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey and who received antenatal care.
  • Senegal 2012: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey and who received antenatal care.
  • Senegal 2014: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey and who received antenatal care.
  • Senegal 2015: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey and who received antenatal care.
  • Senegal 2016: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey and who received antenatal care.
  • Senegal 2017: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • South Africa 1998: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • South Africa 2016: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Tanzania 1991: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Tanzania 1996: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Tanzania 1999: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Tanzania 2004: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Tanzania 2010: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Tanzania 2015: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Uganda 1995: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 4 years before the survey.
  • Uganda 2001: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Uganda 2006: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Uganda 2011: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Uganda 2016: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Yemen 1991: Ever-married women age 15-54 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Yemen 2013: Ever-married women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Zambia 1992: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Zambia 1996: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Zambia 2001: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Zambia 2007: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Zambia 2013: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Zimbabwe 1994: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 3 years before the survey.
  • Zimbabwe 1999: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Zimbabwe 2005: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Zimbabwe 2010: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Zimbabwe 2015: Women age 15-49 who gave birth in the 5 years before the survey.
  • Afghanistan: 2015-W
  • Angola: 2015-W
  • Bangladesh: 1994-W, 1997-W, 2000-W
  • Benin: 1996-W, 2001-W, 2006-W, 2011-W
  • Burkina Faso: 1993-W, 1998-W, 2010-W
  • Burundi: 2010-W, 2016-W
  • Cameroon: 1991-W, 1998-W, 2004-W, 2011-W
  • Congo (Democratic Republic): 2007-W, 2013-W
  • Cote d'Ivoire: 1994-W, 1998-W, 2011-W
  • Egypt: 1992-W, 1995-W, 2000-W, 2005-W, 2008-W, 2014-W
  • Ethiopia: 2011-W, 2016-W
  • Ghana: 1993-W, 1998-W, 2003-W, 2008-W, 2014-W
  • Guinea: 1999-W, 2005-W, 2012-W
  • India: 1992-W
  • Jordan: 1990-W, 1997-W, 2002-W, 2007-W, 2012-W, 2017-W
  • Kenya: 1993-W, 1998-W, 2003-W, 2008-W, 2014-W
  • Lesotho: 2004-W, 2014-W
  • Madagascar: 1992-W, 1997-W
  • Malawi: 1992-W, 2000-W, 2004-W, 2010-W, 2016-W
  • Mali: 1995-W, 2001-W, 2006-W, 2012-W
  • Morocco: 1992-W, 2003-W
  • Mozambique: 1997-W, 2003-W, 2011-W
  • Namibia: 1992-W, 2000-W, 2006-W, 2013-W
  • Nepal: 1996-W, 2001-W, 2006-W, 2011-W, 2016-W
  • Niger: 1992-W, 1998-W, 2006-W, 2012-W
  • Nigeria: 1999-W, 2003-W, 2008-W, 2013-W
  • Senegal: 2005-W, 2010-W, 2012-W, 2014-W, 2015-W, 2016-W, 2017-W
  • South Africa: 1998-W, 2016-W
  • Tanzania: 1991-W, 1996-W, 1999-W, 2004-W, 2010-W, 2015-W
  • Uganda: 1995-W, 2001-W, 2006-W, 2011-W, 2016-W
  • Yemen: 1991-W, 2013-W
  • Zambia: 1992-W, 1996-W, 2001-W, 2007-W, 2013-W
  • Zimbabwe: 1994-W, 1999-W, 2005-W, 2010-W, 2015-W