POPWT Expansion Factor

For IPUMS-DHS household member samples, IPUMS has created the variable POPWT to generate weighted count estimates of individuals in each country. For example, POPWT could be used as an inflation factor to find the approximate number of people in Tanzania in 2015 who slept under an insecticide treated bednet (ITN) the night before the survey.

The household weight constructed by The DHS Program (HHWEIGHT) is a normalized weight. It will yield the correct proportion of the population with a characteristic, but it will not indicate the raw count of people that proportion represents. For example, using HHWEIGHT, a researcher can estimate the share of people in Tanzania who sleep under ITNs. To convert such results into the total number of people sleeping under ITNs in that country, employ POPWT instead.

POPWT is designed to give estimates subject to the same margin of error as the original HHWEIGHT, in addition to the margin of error for population estimates provided by the United Nations Population Division.

Currently, POPWT is only available for household member samples. IPUMS-DHS will soon be releasing POPWT for women as well.

Construction of POPWT

  1. The total population of each country in each year was collected from the United Nations Population Division and is also found in Table 1. The population estimes from the UNPD are for July 1 of that year. For samples that were conducted over two years, IPUMS-DHS used the arithmetic mean of the population estimates for the earlier and later years.
  2. Calculate the sum of HHWEIGHT for all individuals within the sample of interest (usually the size of the sample).
  3. POPWT of individual i = (HHWEIGHT of individual i / Sum of HHWEIGHT in the sample) * Total population in that country in that year.

For example, using the the 2015 Tanzania sample in Stata, a frequency tabulation of ever-treated bed net use the previous night shows that 43.73 percent of the sample reported sleeping, during the previous night, under a bed-net that has ever been treated with insecticide.

			
tab mlnetevertr

person slept under an |
     ever-treated net |      Freq.     Percent        Cum.
----------------------+-----------------------------------
                   no |     36,507       56.27       56.27
                  yes |     28,373       43.73      100.00
----------------------+-----------------------------------
                Total |     64,880      100.00
			
		

When weighted with HHWEIGHT, the analysis estimates that 42.95 percent of people in Tanzania slept under an ever-treated bed net the previous night.

			

tab mlnetevertr [aw=hhweight]

person slept under an |
     ever-treated net |      Freq.     Percent        Cum.
----------------------+-----------------------------------
                   no | 37,015.954       57.05       57.05
                  yes | 27,864.046       42.95      100.00
----------------------+-----------------------------------
                Total |     64,880      100.00
			
		

When weighted with POPWT instead of HHWEIGHT, the analysis estimates that approximately 23,503,077 people in Tanzania slept under an ever-treated bed net the previous night.

			
tab mlnetevertr [fw=popwt]

person slept under an |
     ever-treated net |      Freq.     Percent        Cum.
----------------------+-----------------------------------
                   no | 31,222,908       57.05       57.05
                  yes | 23,503,077       42.95      100.00
----------------------+-----------------------------------
                Total | 54,725,985      100.00

			
		
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Table 1: Population figures used to construct POPWT
IPUMS-DHS sample Year of population estimate Population estimate
Afghanistan 2015 2015 33,736,494
Angola 2015 2015-2016 28,336,384
Bangladesh 1994 1993-1994 114,938,703
Bangladesh 1997 1996-1997 122,562,143
Bangladesh 2000 1999-2000 130,305,467
Bangladesh 2004 2004 141,307,489
Bangladesh 2007 2007 147,139,191
Bangladesh 2011 2011 153,911,916
Bangladesh 2014 2014 159,405,279
Benin 1996 1996 6,094,259
Benin 2001 2001 7,076,733
Benin 2006 2006 8,216,896
Benin 2011 2012 9,729,160
Burkina Faso 1993 1993 9,552,476
Burkina Faso 1998 1998-1999 11,125,713
Burkina Faso 2003 2003 12,654,621
Burkina Faso 2010 2010 15,605,217
Burundi 2010 2010 8,766,930
Burundi 2016 2016-2017 10,694,181
Cameroon 1991 1991 12,060,729
Cameroon 1998 1998 14,523,570
Cameroon 2004 2004 16,959,081
Cameroon 2011 2011 20,520,447
Congo, Democratic Republic 2007 2007 58,417,562
Congo, Democratic Republic 2013 2013 71,316,033
Cote d'Ivoire 1994 1994 14,083,611
Cote d'Ivoire 1998 1998-1999 16,092,393
Cote d'Ivoire 2011 2011 20,895,311
Egypt 1992 1992-1993 60,655,569
Egypt 1995 1995-1996 64,323,921
Egypt 2000 2000 69,905,988
Egypt 2005 2005 76,778,149
Egypt 2008 2008 80,953,881
Egypt 2014 2014 91,812,566
Ethiopia 2000 2000 66,537,331
Ethiopia 2005 2005 76,727,083
Ethiopia 2011 2011 90,046,756
Ethiopia 2016 2016 102,403,196
Ghana 1993 1993 15,896,432
Ghana 1998 1998-1999 18,257,053
Ghana 2003 2003 20,446,782
Ghana 2008 2008 23,298,640
Ghana 2014 2014 26,962,563
India 1992 1992-1993 915,039,462
India 1998 1999 1,034,539,214
India 2005 2006 1,161,977,719
India 2015 2015-2016 1,316,612,667
Kenya 1993 1993 25,754,114
Kenya 1998 1998 29,769,803
Kenya 2003 2003 34,130,852
Kenya 2008 2008-2009 39,692,810
Kenya 2014 2014 46,024,250
Lesotho 2004 2004 1,933,728
Lesotho 2009 2009 2,019,209
Lesotho 2014 2014 2,145,785
Madagascar 1992 1992 12,301,336
Madagascar 1997 1997 14,347,854
Madagascar 2003 2003-2004 17,541,069
Madagascar 2008 2009 20,569,121
Malawi 1992 1992 9,729,717
Malawi 2000 2000 11,376,172
Malawi 2004 2004 12,676,038
Malawi 2010 2010 15,167,095
Malawi 2016 2015-2016 17,832,591
Mali 1995 1996 9,856,810
Mali 2001 2001 11,293,258
Mali 2006 2006 13,227,064
Mali 2012 2012-2013 16,242,244
Morocco 1992 1992 25,791,494
Morocco 2003 2003-2004 30,011,611
Mozambique 1997 1997 16,701,351
Mozambique 2003 2003 19,716,598
Mozambique 2011 2011 24,939,005
Myanmar 2015 2016 52,885,223
Namibia 1992 1992 1,513,721
Namibia 2000 2000 1,899,257
Namibia 2006 2006-2007 2,067,825
Namibia 2013 2013 2,316,520
Niger 1992 1992 8,549,424
Niger 1998 1998 10,556,549
Niger 2006 2006 14,132,064
Niger 2012 2012 17,731,634
Nigeria 1990 1990 95,269,988
Nigeria 1999 1999 119,327,073
Nigeria 2003 2003 131,972,533
Nigeria 2008 2008 150,347,390
Nigeria 2013 2013 171,829,303
Pakistan 1991 1991 110,730,420
Pakistan 2006 2006-2007 158,713,484
Pakistan 2012 2012-2013 179,812,064
Rwanda 1992 1992 6,701,851
Rwanda 2000 2000 8,025,703
Rwanda 2005 2005 8,991,735
Rwanda 2010 2010-2011 10,381,457
Rwanda 2014 2015 11,629,553
Senegal 1992 1993 8,272,170
Senegal 1997 1997 9,196,528
Senegal 2005 2015 11,251,266
Senegal 2010 2010-2011 13,108,570
Senegal 2012 2013 14,120,320
Senegal 2014 2014 14,546,111
Senegal 2015 2015 14,976,994
Senegal 2016 2016 15,411,614
Senegal 2017 2017 15,850,567
Tanzania 1991 1991-1992 26,767,316
Tanzania 1996 1996 30,811,854
Tanzania 1999 1999 33,291,540
Tanzania 2004 2004-2005 38,830,265
Tanzania 2010 2010 46,098,591
Tanzania 2015 2015 54,726,079
Uganda 1995 1995 20,550,291
Uganda 2001 2000-2001 24,447,083
Uganda 2006 2006 29,550,662
Uganda 2011 2011 35,093,648
Uganda 2016 2016 41,487,965
Yemen 1991 1991-1992 12,993,599
Yemen 2013 2013 25,576,322
Zambia 1992 1992 8,452,275
Zambia 1996 1996 9,394,304
Zambia 2001 2001-2002 10,972,267
Zambia 2007 2007 12,725,974
Zambia 2013 2013-2014 15,387,092
Zimbabwe 1994 1994 11,116,948
Zimbabwe 1999 1999 12,064,537
Zimbabwe 2005 2005 12,940,032
Zimbabwe 2010 2010-2011 14,236,483
Zimbabwe 2015 2015 15,777,451
Population estimates retrieved: 9 March 2018
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