POPWT Expansion Factor

For IPUMS-DHS household member samples, IPUMS has created the variable POPWT to generate weighted count estimates of individuals in each country. For example, POPWT could be used as an inflation factor to find the approximate number of people in Tanzania in 2015 who slept under an insecticide treated bednet (ITN) the night before the survey.

The household weight constructed by The DHS Program (HHWEIGHT) is a normalized weight. It will yield the correct proportion of the population with a characteristic, but it will not indicate the raw count of people that proportion represents. For example, using HHWEIGHT, a researcher can estimate the share of people in Tanzania who sleep under ITNs. To convert such results into the total number of people sleeping under ITNs in that country, employ POPWT instead.

POPWT is designed to give estimates subject to the same margin of error as the original HHWEIGHT, in addition to the margin of error for population estimates provided by the United Nations Population Division.

Currently, POPWT is available for household member and women samples only.

Construction of POPWT

  1. The total population of each country in each year was collected from the United Nations Population Division and is also found in Table 1. The population estimes from the UNPD are for July 1 of that year. For samples that were conducted over two years, IPUMS-DHS used the arithmetic mean of the population estimates for the earlier and later years.
  2. Calculate the sum of HHWEIGHT for all individuals within the sample of interest (usually the size of the sample).
  3. POPWT of individual i = (HHWEIGHT of individual i / Sum of HHWEIGHT in the sample) * Total population in that country in that year.

For example, using the the 2015 Tanzania sample in Stata, a frequency tabulation of ever-treated bed net use the previous night shows that 43.73 percent of the sample reported sleeping, during the previous night, under a bed-net that has ever been treated with insecticide.

			
tab mlnetevertr

person slept under an |
     ever-treated net |      Freq.     Percent        Cum.
----------------------+-----------------------------------
                   no |     36,507       56.27       56.27
                  yes |     28,373       43.73      100.00
----------------------+-----------------------------------
                Total |     64,880      100.00
			
		

When weighted with HHWEIGHT, the analysis estimates that 42.95 percent of people in Tanzania slept under an ever-treated bed net the previous night.

			

tab mlnetevertr [aw=hhweight]

person slept under an |
     ever-treated net |      Freq.     Percent        Cum.
----------------------+-----------------------------------
                   no | 37,015.954       57.05       57.05
                  yes | 27,864.046       42.95      100.00
----------------------+-----------------------------------
                Total |     64,880      100.00
			
		

When weighted with POPWT instead of HHWEIGHT, the analysis estimates that approximately 23,503,077 people in Tanzania slept under an ever-treated bed net the previous night.

			
tab mlnetevertr [fw=popwt]

person slept under an |
     ever-treated net |      Freq.     Percent        Cum.
----------------------+-----------------------------------
                   no | 31,222,908       57.05       57.05
                  yes | 23,503,077       42.95      100.00
----------------------+-----------------------------------
                Total | 54,725,985      100.00

			
		
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Table 1: Population figures used to construct POPWT
IPUMS-DHS sample Year of population estimate Population estimates
Household members Women
Afghanistan 2015 2015 33,736,494 7,717,838
Angola 2015 2015-2016 28,336,384 6,464,701
Bangladesh 1994 1993-1994 114,938,703 26,991,130
Bangladesh 1997 1996-1997 122,562,143 29,554,631
Bangladesh 2000 1999-2000 130,305,467 32,352,208
Bangladesh 2004 2004 141,307,489 36,836,886
Bangladesh 2007 2007 147,139,191 39,492,879
Bangladesh 2011 2011 153,911,916 42,495,445
Bangladesh 2014 2014 159,405,279 44,411,303
Benin 1996 1996 6,094,259 1,377,936
Benin 2001 2001 7,076,733 1,611,445
Benin 2006 2006 8,216,896 1,895,682
Benin 2011 2012 9,729,160 2,271,211
Benin 2017 2017-2018 FILL IN 2,675,094
Burkina Faso 1993 1993 9,552,476 2,129,797
Burkina Faso 1998 1998-1999 11,125,713 2,129,797
Burkina Faso 2003 2003 12,654,621 2,889,589
Burkina Faso 2010 2010 15,605,217 3,579,388
Burundi 1987 1987 N/A 1,136,645
Burundi 2010 2010 8,766,930 2,059,472
Burundi 2016 2016-2017 10,694,181 2,492,042
Cameroon 1991 1991 12,060,729 2,601,167
Cameroon 1998 1998 14,523,570 3,229,202
Cameroon 2004 2004 16,959,081 3,907,239
Cameroon 2011 2011 20,520,447 4,829,207
Congo, Democratic Republic 2007 2007 58,417,562 13,019,597
Congo, Democratic Republic 2013 2013 71,316,033 15,792,129
Cote d'Ivoire 1994 1994 14,083,611 3,044,580
Cote d'Ivoire 1998 1998-1999 16,092,393 3,559,362
Cote d'Ivoire 2011 2011 20,895,311 4,911,719
Egypt 1988 1988 N/A 12,352,198
Egypt 1992 1992-1993 60,655,569 13,956,203
Egypt 1995 1995-1996 64,323,921 15,156,079
Egypt 2000 2000 69,905,988 17,204,523
Egypt 2003 2003 73,981,942 18,385,132
Egypt 2005 2005 76,778,149 19,914,885
Egypt 2008 2008 80,953,881 21,222,387
Egypt 2014 2014 91,812,566 23,420,937
Ethiopia 2000 2000 66,537,331 14,685,712
Ethiopia 2005 2005 76,727,083 17,067,653
Ethiopia 2011 2011 90,046,756 20,848,483
Ethiopia 2016 2016 102,403,196 24,991,034
Ghana 1988 1988 N/A 3,119,319
Ghana 1993 1993 15,896,432 3,680,291
Ghana 1998 1998-1999 18,257,053 4,315,627
Ghana 2003 2003 20,446,782 4,969,608
Ghana 2008 2008 23,298,640 5,854,172
Ghana 2014 2014 26,962,563 6,847,041
Guinea 1999 1999 8,653,769 1,950,229
Guinea 2005 2005 9,679,745 2,192,444
Guinea 2012 2012 11,281,469 2,590,751
India 1992 1992-1993 915,039,462 218,161,413
India 1998 1999 1,034,539,214 255,136,226
India 2005 2006 1,161,977,719 293,289,067
India 2015 2015-2016 1,316,612,667 339,075,272
Jordan 1990 1990 3,560,582 743,732
Jordan 1997 1997 4,832,267 1,140,076
Jordan 2002 2002 5,287,488 1,301,127
Jordan 2007 2007 6,193,191 1,570,408
Jordan 2009 2009 6,821,116 1,741,643
Jordan 2012 2012 7,992,573 2,059,351
Jordan 2017 2017 9,702,353 2,543,517
Kenya 1989 1989 N/A 4,855,967
Kenya 1993 1993 25,754,114 5,792,284
Kenya 1998 1998 29,769,803 7,020,281
Kenya 2003 2003 34,130,852 8,263,802
Kenya 2008 2008-2009 39,692,810 9,692,723
Kenya 2014 2014 46,024,250 11,500,737
Lesotho 2004 2004 1,933,728 522,253
Lesotho 2009 2009 2,019,209 521,808
Lesotho 2014 2014 2,145,785 531,403
Liberia 1986 1986 N/A 481,267
Liberia 2007 2007 3,462,000 810,108
Liberia 2013 2013 4,248,000 996,771
Madagascar 1992 1992 12,301,336 2,791,164
Madagascar 1997 1997 14,347,854 3,299,671
Madagascar 2003 2003-2004 17,541,069 4,056,293
Madagascar 2008 2009 20,569,121 4,824,663
Malawi 1992 1992 9,729,717 2,240,273
Malawi 2000 2000 11,376,172 2,540,489
Malawi 2004 2004 12,676,038 2,855,104
Malawi 2010 2010 15,167,095 3,605,450
Malawi 2016 2015-2016 17,832,591 4,247,616
Mali 1987 1987 N/A 1,763,537
Mali 1995 1996 9,856,810 2,159,946
Mali 2001 2001 11,293,258 2,508,066
Mali 2006 2006 13,227,064 2,929,029
Mali 2012 2012-2013 16,242,244 2,929,029
Morocco 1987 1987 N/A 5,513,204
Morocco 1992 1992 25,791,494 6,278,977
Morocco 2003 2003-2004 30,011,611 8,266,585
Mozambique 1997 1997 16,701,351 4,021,164
Mozambique 2003 2003 19,716,598 4,667,609
Mozambique 2011 2011 24,939,005 5,802,826
Myanmar 2015 2016 52,885,223 14,779,062
Namibia 1992 1992 1,513,721 365,630
Namibia 2000 2000 1,899,257 453,953
Namibia 2006 2006-2007 2,067,825 521,030
Namibia 2013 2013 2,316,520 592,648
Nepal 1996 1996 21,903,379 5,099,064
Nepal 2001 2001 24,161,777 5,875,083
Nepal 2006 2006 25,940,618 6,465,879
Nepal 2011 2011 27,327,147 7,167,548
Nepal 2016 2016 28,982,771 8,191,447
Niger 1992 1992 8,549,424 1,930,776
Niger 1998 1998 10,556,549 2,331,792
Niger 2006 2006 14,132,064 3,021,308
Niger 2012 2012 17,731,634 3,719,311
Nigeria 1990 1990 95,269,988 21,183,489
Nigeria 1999 1999 119,327,073 27,297,602
Nigeria 2003 2003 131,972,533 30,337,515
Nigeria 2008 2008 150,347,390 34,443,289
Nigeria 2013 2013 171,829,303 39,168,093
Pakistan 1991 1991 110,730,420 24,167,853
Pakistan 2006 2006-2007 158,713,484 39,038,356
Pakistan 2012 2012-2013 179,812,064 45,302,230
Pakistan 2017 2017-2018 198,914,887 52,578,242
Rwanda 1992 1992 6,701,851 1,519,875
Rwanda 2000 2000 8,025,703 1,951,880
Rwanda 2005 2005 8,991,735 2,277,024
Rwanda 2008 2008 9,708,169 2,389,075
Rwanda 2010 2010-2011 10,381,457 2,600,325
Rwanda 2014 2015 11,629,553 2,913,666
Senegal 1986 1986 N/A 1,431,884
Senegal 1992 1993 8,272,170 1,823,446
Senegal 1997 1997 9,196,528 2,093,315
Senegal 2005 2015 11,251,266 2,719,163
Senegal 2010 2010-2011 13,108,570 3,205,854
Senegal 2012 2013 14,120,320 3,447,223
Senegal 2014 2014 14,546,111 3,548,342
Senegal 2015 2015 14,976,994 3,651,545
Senegal 2016 2016 15,411,614 3,755,639
Senegal 2017 2017 15,850,567 3,780,022
South Africa 1998 1998 44,372,112 11,405,802
South Africa 2016 2016 56,015,473 15,361,616
Sri Lanka 1987 1987 N/A 4,285,166
Sudan 1989 1990 N/A 4,538,588
Tanzania 1991 1991-1992 26,767,316 6,083,931
Tanzania 1996 1996 30,811,854 7,067,681
Tanzania 1999 1999 33,291,540 7,680,987
Tanzania 2004 2004-2005 38,830,265 8,970,030
Tanzania 2010 2010 46,098,591 10,699,748
Tanzania 2015 2015 54,726,079 12,505,739
Tunisia 1988 1988 N/A 1,879,989
Uganda 1988 1988 N/A 3,610,562
Uganda 1995 1995 20,550,291 4,478,426
Uganda 2001 2000-2001 24,447,083 5,310,004
Uganda 2006 2006 29,550,662 6,428,534
Uganda 2011 2011 35,093,648 7,763,841
Uganda 2016 2016 41,487,965 9,407,843
Yemen 1991 1991-1992 12,993,599 2,670,243
Yemen 2013 2013 25,576,322 6,273,305
Zambia 1992 1992 8,452,275 1,900,779
Zambia 1996 1996 9,394,304 2,141,754
Zambia 2001 2001-2002 10,972,267 2,520,632
Zambia 2007 2007 12,725,974 2,918,330
Zambia 2013 2013-2014 15,387,092 3,619,567
Zimbabwe 1988 1988 N/A 2,126,517
Zimbabwe 1994 1994 11,116,948 2,600,804
Zimbabwe 1999 1999 12,064,537 2,981,933
Zimbabwe 2005 2005 12,940,032 3,324,704
Zimbabwe 2010 2010-2011 14,236,483 3,693,940
Zimbabwe 2015 2015 15,777,451 4,099,066
Population estimates retrieved: 25 June 2019
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