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Known source for male condoms: Non-governmental organization (NGO)

Codes and Frequencies

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HCMNGO indicates whether the woman reported an "NGO," or non-governmental organization, as a source for male condoms.

Some samples in the "HCM" series include categories that can be consolidated into a single response. IPUMS-DHS uses supplemental programming to combine these responses in a standard variable while preserving the separate responses in country-specific variables.

For example, a given sample might include multiple categories for different types of NGOs that could be combined to create a more comprehensive response category. HCMNGO is concerned with whether the woman reported any NGO as a source for male condoms. See Comparability for more information on the specific categories combined in this variable.

Comparability — Index



Along with universe differences, HCMNGO has some contextual factors regarding question wording that should be noted by researchers. This survey context broadly applies to the "source for male condom" series. For discussion of this topic, see the comparability section of HCMDK.

Additionally, HCMNGO varies slightly in response category wording. While the response is most commonly worded as "NGO," some samples include multiple, specific NGO sources. In these cases, multiple categories were consolidated to form a single, more comprehensive response. Countries of particular interest are noted below.

Comparability - Standard DHS

An open-ended question on known sources for male condoms is included in the standard DHS questionnaire in Phases III forward. HCMNGO is country-specific and not part of the standard DHS questionnaire.


  • Afghanistan 2015: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Ethiopia 2000: Women age 15-49 who have ever had sexual intercourse.
  • Ethiopia 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • Ethiopia 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • India 2005: All women age 15-49.
  • India 2015: Women age 15-49 in households selected for the State module.
  • Jordan 2002: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Jordan 2007: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Jordan 2012: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Jordan 2017: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Myanmar 2015: All women age 15-49.
  • Nepal 2001: Ever-married women age 15-49.
  • Nepal 2006: All women age 15-49.
  • Nepal 2011: All women age 15-49.
  • Nigeria 2003: All women age 15-49.
  • Nigeria 2008: All women age 15-49.
  • Nigeria 2013: All women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 2004: All women age 15-49.
  • Tanzania 2010: All women age 15-49.
  • Afghanistan: 2015-C, 2015-W, 2015-B
  • Ethiopia: 2000-W, 2000-C, 2000-B, 2005-W, 2005-C, 2005-B, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B
  • India: 2005-W, 2005-C, 2005-B, 2015-W, 2015-C, 2015-B
  • Jordan: 2002-W, 2002-C, 2002-B, 2007-W, 2007-C, 2007-B, 2012-W, 2012-C, 2012-B, 2017-W, 2017-C, 2017-B
  • Myanmar: 2015-C, 2015-W, 2015-B
  • Nepal: 2001-W, 2001-C, 2001-B, 2006-W, 2006-C, 2006-B, 2011-W, 2011-C, 2011-B
  • Nigeria: 2003-W, 2003-C, 2003-B, 2008-W, 2008-C, 2008-B, 2013-W, 2013-C, 2013-B
  • Tanzania: 2004-B, 2004-W, 2004-C, 2010-B, 2010-W, 2010-C