SUMMARY OF CONTEXTUAL VARIABLES IN IPUMS-DHS

Variable Description Source Temporal resolution Spatial resolution (circa km)
of source data
Variable type Buffer (Km)
Physical and Environmental Context
ECOREGION Predominant terrestrial ecoregion Terrestrial Ecoregion of the World (TEOW) NA NA Categorical 5
SOIL Soil type SoilGrids, World Soil Information (ISRIC) NA .25 Categorical 5
NDVI1 Greenness of vegetation and land cover in area The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 60 months prior to survey start month, survey start month, and 11 months after survey start month; total 72 months1 .25 Numeric
(0 to 1)
10
PRECIP2 Average monthly precipitation
(millimeters)
Climate Hazards Group (CHG) from InfraRed Precipitation with Station data (CHIRPS) 60 months prior to survey start month, survey start month, and 11 months after survey start month; total 72 months2 5 Numeric 10
TEMP_MIN3
TEMP_MAX
Minimum and maximum monthly temperature (kelvin scale) Terrestrial Hydrology Research Group, Princeton University (version 3) 60 months prior to survey start month, survey start month, and 11 months after survey start month; total 72 months3 25 Numeric 10
Economic and Social Context
LIVELIHOOD4 Predominant livelihood zone (i.e., main economic basis for subsistence) Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS NET) NA NA Categorical 5
POPDENSITY Population density (persons per square kilometer) Gridded Population of the World (GPW), v4, from Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) Estimates for 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, 2020 1 Numeric 5
MALARIA Mean clinical Plasmodium falciparium malaria incidence (expressed as fractions of cases per person) The Malaria Atlas Project (MAP) Yearly data from 2000 - 2019 5 Numeric
(0 to 1)
10
BATTLES Number of days with battles (yearly) Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project (ACLED) Click HERE for country and temporal coverage information5 NA Numeric 10
RIOTS Number of days with riots or protests (yearly) Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project (ACLED) Click HERE for country and temporal coverage information5 NA Numeric 10
VIOLENCE Number of days with violence against civlians (yearly) Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project (ACLED) Click HERE for country and temporal coverage information5 NA Numeric 10
Agricultural Context
CROPLAND Proportion of land used for planting crops EarthStat Circa 2000 10 Numeric
(0 to 1)
10
PASTURELAND Proportion of land used as pasture EarthStat Circa 2000 10 Numeric
(0 to 1)
10
Crops: Harvested Area (e.g., RICE_H) Total harvested area in hectares on a subset of 17 major crops. EarthStat 2000 10 Numeric 10
Crops: Production (e.g., RICE_P) Total production of a specific crop, in metric tons on a subset of 17 major crops. EarthStat 2000 10 Numeric 10
Additional contextual variables that link GPS cluster data to ancillary data are available from The DHS Program's Geospatial Covariates page.
  1. NDVI data range from February 2000 - October 2018
  2. PRECIPITATION data range from January 1981 - December 2020
  3. TEMPERATURE data ranges from January 1980 - December 2016
  4. LIVELIHOOD ZONE data available for the following countries: Afghanistan, Angola, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Guinea, Haiti, Honduras, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe
  5. For Battles, Riots and Violence, "present" refers to the date for last data download, January 15, 2021

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