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WOMEN
Each record will be a woman of childbearing age
CHILDREN
Each record will be a child under age 5
BIRTHS
Each record will be a birth reported by a woman of childbearing age
HOUSEHOLD MEMBERS
Each record will be a household member
MEN
Each record will be a man

Use this option if women are the unit of analysis. Each record will be a woman of childbearing age.

Childbearing age is typically defined as ages 15-49, but some samples include women younger than 15 and/or include only ever-married women. Please consult variable universes and sample descriptions for the exact information for a given sample.

Most variables available under this option relate to women themselves, but some relate to the woman's latest birth (youngest child) or her household.

Use this option if children are the unit of analysis.

Most commonly, child records relate to children under age 5, but some samples include children under age 4 or under age 3. Please consult variable universes and sample descriptions for the exact information for a given sample.

Most variables available under this option relate to the children themselves, but there are also variables that provide information on their mothers and households. Data on children are collected through questions to mothers. Multiple children can have the same mother.

Use this option if births (regardless of current age) are the unit of analysis.

Birth records relate to all births, up to a total of 20 births, to women of childbearing age.

Some variables under this option relate to the characteristics of the births themselves (such as sex and date of birth). The majority of variables provide information on the mothers of those births and their households. Data on births are collected through questions to mothers. Multiple births can have the same mother.

Use this option if household members (of any age and sex) are the unit of analysis.

Household member records relate to all persons, including both usual residents and visitors, recorded on the listing of household members during the completion of the household survey form. In the sampling process, a random selection of households was drawn from a list of all households included in a chosen primary sampling unit (such as an enumeration areafrom the most recent national census). Household members are all persons included in each such randomly selected household.

Most variables under this option relate to the characteristics of the household members themselves (such as their age and relationship to the household head). Other variables provide information on the characteristics of the dwelling unit.

Use this option if men are the unit of analysis. Each record will be an adult non-elderly man, from the randomly selected households included in DHS samples.

Exact age ranges and the presence of marital status restrictions for men vary across samples. Please consult variable universes and sample descriptions for the exact information for a given sample.

An "X" indicates the variable is available in that dataset.
Domestic violence attitudes Variables    [top]
DVAEVER Attitude to wife beating: Ever justified . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVAEVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVAEVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVAEVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X . . DVAEVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVAEVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVAEVER . . . . . .
DVAARGUE Attitude to wife beating: Justified if woman argues with him X X . . . . X X X . X X X . . X X . X X . . X X X DVAARGUE X . . X . . . . X X X X X X X . . . X X X . X X . DVAARGUE . X X . . X X . X X . . . X X X X X X . . X X . X DVAARGUE X X X . . X X X . . X . X X X . . X X . X X X X . DVAARGUE . X X . . X X X . . X X . X X X X . . . X X X X X DVAARGUE X X . X . . . . X X X . . . X X X X . X . . X X X DVAARGUE . . X X X X
DVABURNFOOD Attitude to wife beating: Justified if woman burns food X X . . . . . X X . X X X . . X X . X X . . X X X DVABURNFOOD X . . X . . . . X X X X X X X . . . X X X . X X . DVABURNFOOD X X X . . X X . X X . . . X X X X X X . . X X . X DVABURNFOOD X X X . . X X X . . X . X X X . . X X . X X X X . DVABURNFOOD . X X . . X X X . . X X . X X X X . . . X X X X X DVABURNFOOD X X . X . . . . X X X . . . X X X X . X . . X X X DVABURNFOOD . . X X X X
DVAGOOUT Attitude to wife beating: Justified if woman goes out without telling him X X . . . . X X X . X X X . . X X . X X . . X X X DVAGOOUT X . . X . . . . X X X X X X X . . . X X X . X X . DVAGOOUT X X X . . X X . X X . . . X X X X X X . . X X . X DVAGOOUT X X X . . X X X . . X . X X X . . X X . X X X X . DVAGOOUT . X X . . X X X . . X X . X X X X . . . X X X X X DVAGOOUT X X . X . . . . X X X . . . X X X X . X . . . X X DVAGOOUT . . X X X X
DVAIFNOSEX Attitude to wife beating: Justified if woman refused to have sex X X . . . . X X X . X X X . . X X . X X . . X X X DVAIFNOSEX X . . X . . . . X X X X X X X . . . X X X . X X . DVAIFNOSEX . X X . . . . . . . . . . X X X X X X . . X X . X DVAIFNOSEX X X X . . X X X . . X . X X X . . X X . X X X X . DVAIFNOSEX . X X . . X X X . . X X . X X X X . . . X X X X X DVAIFNOSEX X X . X . . . . X X X . . . X X X X . X . . X X X DVAIFNOSEX . . X X X X
DVANEGKID Attitude to wife beating: Justified if woman neglects the children X X . . . . X X X . X X X . . X X . X X . . X X X DVANEGKID X . . X . . . . X X X X X X X . . . X X X . X X . DVANEGKID X X X . . X X . X X . . . X X X X X X . . X X . X DVANEGKID X X X . . X X X . . X . X X X . . X X . X X X X . DVANEGKID . X X . . X X X . . X X . X X X X . . . X X X X X DVANEGKID X X . X . . . . X X X . . . X X X X . X . . X X X DVANEGKID . . X X X X
DVACHEAT Attitude to wife beating: Justified if woman commits infidelity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVACHEAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVACHEAT X . X . . X X . X X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVACHEAT X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVACHEAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVACHEAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X . . DVACHEAT . . . . X X
DVADISINLAW Attitude to wife beating: Justified if woman shows disrespect for inlaws . . . . . . X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVADISINLAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVADISINLAW X X X . . X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVADISINLAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVADISINLAW . . . . . . . . . . X X . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVADISINLAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVADISINLAW . . . . . .
DVANODOWRY Attitude to wife beating: Justified if natal family doesn't give money . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVANODOWRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVANODOWRY X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVANODOWRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X . DVANODOWRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVANODOWRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVANODOWRY . . . . . .
DVADECPAY Attitude to wife beating: Justified if woman refuses to let husband decide how to use her pay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVADECPAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVADECPAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X X . . . . . . . DVADECPAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVADECPAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVADECPAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVADECPAY . . . . . .
DVANOFP Attitude to wife beating: Justified if woman refuses to use contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVANOFP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVANOFP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVANOFP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X . . . . . . . . . . DVANOFP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVANOFP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVANOFP . . . . . .
DVATOOSOCIAL Attitude to wife beating: Justified if woman is involved in too many social activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVATOOSOCIAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVATOOSOCIAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVATOOSOCIAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X . . . . . . . . . . DVATOOSOCIAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVATOOSOCIAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVATOOSOCIAL . . . . . .
DVADISOBEY Attitude to wife beating: Justified if woman disobeys him . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVADISOBEY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVADISOBEY . . . . . X X . X X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVADISOBEY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVADISOBEY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVADISOBEY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVADISOBEY . . . . . .
DVAINSULT Attitude to wife beating: Justified if woman insults him . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVAINSULT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVAINSULT . . . . . X X . X X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVAINSULT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVAINSULT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVAINSULT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVAINSULT . . . . . .
DVAINSREL Attitude to wife beating: Justified if woman insults husband's religion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVAINSREL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVAINSREL . . . . . X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVAINSREL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVAINSREL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVAINSREL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVAINSREL . . . . . .
DVAOTHER Attitude to wife beating: Justified in other situation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVAOTHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVAOTHER . . . . . X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVAOTHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVAOTHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVAOTHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVAOTHER . . . . . .
DVAWHOMOST Person who commits most violent acts against women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVAWHOMOST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVAWHOMOST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVAWHOMOST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVAWHOMOST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVAWHOMOST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X . . . . . DVAWHOMOST . . . . . .
DVAWHEREMOST Location of most violent acts against women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVAWHEREMOST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVAWHEREMOST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVAWHEREMOST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVAWHEREMOST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVAWHEREMOST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X . . . . . DVAWHEREMOST . . . . . .
DVANYDAMAGE Believes at least one type of violence to women causes damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVANYDAMAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVANYDAMAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVANYDAMAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVANYDAMAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVANYDAMAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X . . . . . DVANYDAMAGE . . . . . .
DVASERDAMAGE Most serious damage caused by violence to women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVASERDAMAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVASERDAMAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVASERDAMAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVASERDAMAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVASERDAMAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X . . . . . DVASERDAMAGE . . . . . .
DVMCHILDMAR Domestic violence means: Early marriage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMCHILDMAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMCHILDMAR . . . . . . X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMCHILDMAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMCHILDMAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMCHILDMAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMCHILDMAR . . . . . .
DVMCONTROL Domestic violence means: Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMCONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMCONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMCONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMCONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMCONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X . . . . . DVMCONTROL . . . . . .
DVMDECHH Domestic violence means: No involvement in household decision-making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMDECHH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMDECHH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMDECHH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMDECHH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMDECHH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X . . . . . DVMDECHH . . . . . .
DVMDECKIDS Domestic violence means: No involvement in decision-making for children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMDECKIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMDECKIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMDECKIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMDECKIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMDECKIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X . . . . . DVMDECKIDS . . . . . .
DVMEDUC Domestic violence means: Denial of education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMEDUC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMEDUC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMEDUC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMEDUC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMEDUC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X . . . . . DVMEDUC . . . . . .
DVMFORCMAR Domestic violence means: Forced marriage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMFORCMAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMFORCMAR . . . . . . X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMFORCMAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMFORCMAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMFORCMAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X . . . . . DVMFORCMAR . . . . . .
DVMHARDWK Domestic violence means: Hard work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMHARDWK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMHARDWK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMHARDWK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMHARDWK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMHARDWK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X . . . . . DVMHARDWK . . . . . .
DVMINSULT Domestic violence means: Insults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMINSULT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMINSULT . . . . . . X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMINSULT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMINSULT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMINSULT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X . . . . . DVMINSULT . . . . . .
DVMLIVING Domestic violence means: Failing to meet basic living costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMLIVING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMLIVING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMLIVING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMLIVING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMLIVING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X . . . . . DVMLIVING . . . . . .
DVMPHYS Domestic violence means: Physical abuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMPHYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMPHYS . . . . . . X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMPHYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMPHYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMPHYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X . . . . . DVMPHYS . . . . . .
DVMRAPE Domestic violence means: Rape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMRAPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMRAPE . . . . . . X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMRAPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMRAPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMRAPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X . . . . . DVMRAPE . . . . . .
DVMSEXHAR Domestic violence means: Sexual harassment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMSEXHAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMSEXHAR . . . . . . X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMSEXHAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMSEXHAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMSEXHAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X . . . . . DVMSEXHAR . . . . . .
DVMTHREAT Domestic violence means: Physical threats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMTHREAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMTHREAT . . . . . . X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMTHREAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMTHREAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMTHREAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMTHREAT . . . . . .
DVMTREATM Domestic violence means: Males treated better than females . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMTREATM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMTREATM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMTREATM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMTREATM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMTREATM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X . . . . . DVMTREATM . . . . . .
DVMUNWANTSEX Domestic violence means: Unwanted sexual intercourse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMUNWANTSEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMUNWANTSEX . . . . . . X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMUNWANTSEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMUNWANTSEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMUNWANTSEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMUNWANTSEX . . . . . .
DVMOTH Domestic violence means: Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMOTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMOTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMOTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMOTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVMOTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X . . . . . DVMOTH . . . . . .
DVLAWPROTECT Knows there are laws to protect people against abuse and domestic violence . X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVLAWPROTECT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVLAWPROTECT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVLAWPROTECT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVLAWPROTECT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVLAWPROTECT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DVLAWPROTECT . . . . . .
DVAPRESHUSB Husband present during "wife beating justified" questions X X . . . . X X X . X X X . . . X . X X . . X . X DVAPRESHUSB X . . X . . . . X X X X . X X . . . X X X . X X . DVAPRESHUSB . X X . . X X . X X . . . X X X X X X . . . . . X DVAPRESHUSB X X X . . X X X . . X . X X X . . X X . . X X X . DVAPRESHUSB . X X . . X X X . . X X . . . X X . . . X X X X X DVAPRESHUSB X X . X . . . . X X X . . . X X X X . . . . . X X DVAPRESHUSB . . X X X X
DVAPRESOMALE Other males present during "wife beating justified" questions X X . . . . X X X . X X X . . . X . X X . . X . X DVAPRESOMALE X . . X . . . . X X X X . X X . . . X X X . X X . DVAPRESOMALE . X X . . X X . X X . . . X X X X X X . . . . . X DVAPRESOMALE X X X . . X X X . . X . X X X . . X X . . X X X . DVAPRESOMALE . X X . . X X X . . X X . . . X X . . . X X X X X DVAPRESOMALE X X . X . . . . X X X . . . X X X X . . . . . X X DVAPRESOMALE . . X X X X
DVAPRESOFEM Other females present during "wife beating justified" questions X X . . . . X X X . X X X . . . X . X X . . X . X DVAPRESOFEM X . . X . . . . X X X X . X X . . . X X X . X X . DVAPRESOFEM . X X . . X X . X X . . . X X X X X X . . . . . X DVAPRESOFEM X X X . . X X X . . X . X X X . . X X . . X X X . DVAPRESOFEM . X X . . X X X . . X X . . . X X . . . X X X X X DVAPRESOFEM X X . X . . . . X X X . . . X X X X . . . . . X X DVAPRESOFEM . . X X X X
DVAPRESKIDS Children present during "wife beating justified" questions X X . . . . X X X . X X X . . . X . X X . . X . X DVAPRESKIDS X . . X . . . . X X X X . X X . . . X X X . X X . DVAPRESKIDS . X X . . X X . X X . . . X X X X X X . . . . . X DVAPRESKIDS X X X . . X X X . . X . X X X . . X X . . X X X . DVAPRESKIDS . X X . . X X X . . X X . . . X X . . . X X X X X DVAPRESKIDS X X . X . . . . X X X . . . X X X X . . . . . X X DVAPRESKIDS . . X X X X